Aelbert Cuyp DPG96, DPG124
DPG96 – An Evening Ride near a River
c. 1650s; oak panel, 48.9 x 64.1 cm
Signed, bottom left: A. cúÿp.
?Robert Bragge sale, London, 1759 (not in Lugt), ‘A Landschape’; £22 1s. to Barnard;1 John Barnard, Berkeley Square, London, 1769 (according to a print by T. Major, Related works, no. 2b) ; Thomas Hankey sale (as previously in the collection of John Barnard), Christie’s, 7 June 1799 (Lugt 5936), lot 31; bt Bourgeois, £47 5s.;2 Bourgeois Bequest, 1811; Britton 1813, p. 10, no. 77 (‘Library Cuyp’s / no. 14, Do [i.e. A Landscape] – Do [i.e. with figures & Sheep] Shepherd & goats – P[anel] – Do [i.e. Cuyp]’; 2'7" x 3'1").
?London 1761, i, p. 288;3 Martyn 1766, i, p. 8 (repeating London 1761); Cat. 1817, p. 6, no. 75 (‘FIRST ROOM – East Side; A Landscape, with Shepherds and Men on Horseback; Cuyp’); Haydon 1817, p. 376, no. 75; Cat. 1820, p. 6, no. 75; Patmore 1824b, pp. 16–17, no. 83;4 Cat. 1831–3, p. 8, no. 141;5 Smith, v, 1834, p. 307, no. 83, and p. 360, no. 261;6 Jameson 1842, ii, p. 465, no. 141 (‘A very beautiful picture’); Clarke 1842, no. 141;7 Waagen 1854, ii, p. 344;8 Denning 1858 and 1859, no. 141; Sparkes 1876, p. 46, no. 141;9 Richter & Sparkes 1880, p. 45, no. 141;10 Havard & Sparkes 1885 (‘first-rate example of this painter’); Richter & Sparkes 1892 and 1905, p. 24, no. 96; HdG, ii, 1908, p. 126, no. 434 (Engl. edn 1909, pp. 132–3);11 Cook 1914, p. 57, no. 96; Cook 1926, p. 54, no. 96; Cat. 1953, p.17; Reiss 1975, pp. 194, 208 (not Cuyp, ‘agreeable but insipid’); Murray 1980a, p. 47 (Cuyp);12 Murray 1980b, p. 12; White 1982, p. 35, under no. 38; Chong 1992, n.p., no. C 14; Chong 1993, p. 442, no. B 18 (‘may be a work of a pupil under Cuyp’s supervision or tutelage’); Beresford 1998, p. 81 (Cuyp);13 Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, pp. 62, 66; RKD, no. 225943: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/225943 (Dec. 9, 2017).
An Evening Ride near a River, c. 1650s
panel (oak), oil paint 48,9 x 64,1 cm
lower left : A. cuijp
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG96
Landscape with a Horseman, Figures, and Cattle, c. 1655
canvas, oil paint 132,1 x 205,7 cm
Aylesbury, Waddesdon Manor-The Rothschild Collection, inv./cat.nr. 2566
Abraham van Calraet
Landscape in the Rhine Valley
canvas, oil paint 132,1 x 184,2 cm
Derbyshire (county), Kedleston Hall, inv./cat.nr. NT 108881
London 1903, p. 26, no. 99; Williamsburg/Fresno/Pittsburgh/Oklahoma City 2008–10, pp. 56–7, no. 14 (I. A. C. Dejardin).
Two-member oak panel. The panel has a slightly uneven join and a light concave warp. On the reverse there is evidence of a previously removed cradle or battens. There is a secure crack at the bottom left of the panel, above the signature. Some pigment blanching has occurred in the bank behind the figures and in the leaves of the trees, and some of the foliage appears slightly abraded. There is some (retouched) damage to the sky, particularly in the top right. Previous recorded treatment: 1915, crack repaired, cleaned and varnished, Holder; 1952–5, Dr Hell; 1973–4, ?cleaned and retouched, C. Mealey and J. Brealey; 2010–12, conserved, S. Plender.
1a) ?Aelbert Cuyp, Horseman in a Landscape, signed, canvas, 66 x 81.3 cm. Edouard de Rothschild collection, France (1968); Chong C 31.14
1b) Aelbert Cuyp, River Valley with a Horseman and Buildings in the Distance, signed, canvas, 132 x 206 cm. National Trust, Waddesdon Manor, 2566; Chong 167 .15
1c) Abraham van Calraet or Aelbert Cuyp, Hilly Landscape with Shepherds and Riders, canvas, 130 x 180 cm. National Trust, Kedleston Hall, NT 108881; Chong Calr 5 .16
1d) (similar horseman) ?Aelbert Cuyp, Landscape with Ubbergen Castle, 1650s, board, 42.5 x 51.3 cm. National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, NMW A 23; Chong C 2 .17
1e) (similar horseman) Aelbert Cuyp, An Officer with his Horse, signed A. cuijp, canvas, 116.8 x 148.5 cm. Royal Collection Trust, 309; Chong 144.18
1f) Copy: Present whereabouts unknown (photograph in the archive at Gainsborough’s House, Sudbury, Suffolk).
1g) (similar horseman) Cornelis Vermeulen (1732–1813), Riverscape with Horsemen and Flock, monogrammed CVM, panel, 23.5 x 29.5 cm. Present whereabouts unknown (Neumeister, Munich, 25 March 1998, lot 403 (as Monogrammist CVM); Dorotheum, Vienna, 15 Oct. 1996, lot 308).19
2a) Reinier van Persijn (c. 1614–68) after Jacob Cuyp, Two Goats, engraving, 130 x 198 mm (no. 13 of Claes Jansz. Visscher’s Diversa Animalia Quadrupedia, 1641). RPK, RM, Amsterdam, RP-P-1889-A-15090 .20
2b) Thomas Major, The Contented Peasants, 1769, etching and engraving, 394 x 482 mm. Lettering includes Engrav’d from an Original Painting of Cuype in the Collection of John Barnard Esq.r BM, London, 1872,0511.407 .21
2c) Copy: Ralph Cockburn, A Landscape, c. 1816–20, aquatint, 175 x 232 mm (Cockburn 1830, no. 24). DPG .22
3) Copy: watercolour, probably 19th century. Owen collection, Maldon, Essex, 1986.23
Lent to the RA to be copied in 1856.
A relatively small painting, of a late afternoon scene lit by the setting sun. It was probably painted in the 1650s. Conservation in 2010–12 restored the fine details in the landscape that had been lost. The absence of these details had led Reiss and Chong to doubt the identity of the painter, despite the broad and strong composition. The contrejour is typical of Cuyp, and the signature seems genuine and contemporary with the picture. An Evening Ride near a River is similar in composition and handling to another picture related to Cuyp in the Rothschild collection (Related works, no. 1a), and Chong suggested more general similarities with a Cuyp picture at Waddesdon Manor and a Calraet at Kedleston (Related works, nos. 1b, 1c) [1-2]. The horseman in the foreground also appears in a Cuyp picture in Cardiff and in one in the Royal Collection (Related works, nos. 1d  and 1e). The motif of the horseman was also used later in Cuyp’s home town of Dordrecht by Cornelis Vermeulen, from the same city (Related works, no. 1g). And it seems that just as in the much earlier Landscape with Cattle and Figures (DPG348) Cuyp was using one of the prints after his father’s drawings for the goat (Related works, no. 2a , reversed, or he may still have had his father’s original drawing, which is no longer known.
In 1769 the picture belonged to John Barnard, one of the foremost collectors of his day, with as its pair a painting by Jan Asselijn and Nicolaes Berchem. Both were engraved by Thomas Major, the Cuyp being called The Contented Peasants (Related works, no. 2b) . During conservation in 2010–12 pinpoint holes were discovered on the edges of the panel, made in the process of ‘squaring up’; a grid placed over the painting would aid a printmaker in the transfer of the composition to a plate for printing, and these marks are likely to date from the time when Thomas Major made his print .
This could be the Cuyp in Barnard’s collection in 1761 that was described as ‘Landskip with cattle and figures by Cuyp’. It seems likely to have passed on Barnard’s death to his nephew, Thomas Hankey, who put it up for auction in 1799, when it was bought by Bourgeois. It is difficult to locate An Evening Ride near a River in Desenfans’ and Bourgeois’ subsequent records.
Landscape with Ubbergen Castle, mid 1650s
cardboard, oil paint 42,5 x 51,3 cm
Cardiff (Wales), National Museum of Wales, inv./cat.nr. NMW A 23
Reinier van Persijn after Jacob Gerritsz. Cuyp
Hilly Landscape with two goats, dated 1641
paper, engraving 130 x 194 mm
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./cat.nr. RP-P-1889-A-15090
Thomas Major after Aelbert Cuyp
Contented peasants, dated 1769
paper, etching and engraving 394 x 482 mm
London (England), British Museum, inv./cat.nr. 1872,0511.407
Ralph Cockburn after Aelbert Cuyp
paper, aquatint 175 x 232 mm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery
The panel with pinpoint holes
DPG124 – A Road near a River
c. 1660; canvas, 115.6 x 170.6 cm
?;24 Desenfans sale, Skinner and Dyke, 18 March 1802 (Lugt (6380), lot 162 (‘A large Landscape with Cattle and Figures’;25 bt Elliot for £189; bt in) (handwritten note in copy of catalogue in RKD: ‘65. [i.e. 6 x 5] – 2 High trees & 2 shepds sitting und.r it & sheep & a kldog [?] – a Man ridg [riding] on Ass wh. Panniers &c’); Insurance 1804, no. 60 (‘Cuyp – A large landscape with shepherds, £600’); Bourgeois Bequest, 1811; Britton 1813, p. 10, no. 76 (‘Library Cuyp’s / no. 13, Do [i.e. A Landscape] with figures & Sheep. – C[anvas]. Do [i.e. Cuyp]’; 5'6" x 6'8").
Cat. 1817, p. 4, no. 29 (‘FIRST ROOM – West Side; A Landscape, with Figures and Animals; Cuyp’); Haydon 1817, p. 372, no. 29;26 Cat. 1820, p. 4, no. 29; Patmore 1824b, pp. 13–14, no. 18;27 Cat. 1831–3, p. 9, no. 163;28 Smith, v, 1834, pp. 304–5, no. 72;29 Jameson 1842, ii, pp. 468–9, no. 163 (‘An admirable picture’); Clarke 1842, no. 163;30 Waagen 1854, ii, p. 344;31 Denning 1858 and 1859, no. 163; Ruskin 1873, v, pt vi (‘Of Leaf Beauty’), ch. v (‘Leaf Aspects’), p. 38;32 Sparkes 1876, p. 47, no. 163;33 Richter & Sparkes 1880, pp. 45–6, no. 163;34 Richter & Sparkes 1892 and 1905, p. 32, no. 124; HdG, ii, 1908, pp. 126–7, no. 435 (Smith 72: Engl. edn 1909, p. 133); Cook 1914, pp. 72–3, no. 124; Cook 1926, pp. 68–9, no. 124; Country Life 1928, p. 250; Whitley 1928a, p. 32 (?); Reiss 1953a, p. 33, no. 159 (final period, 1660–65); Reiss 1953b, p. 46 (final period, 1660–65); Cat. 1953, p. 17; Paintings 1954, pp. 7, ; Burnett 1969, p. 380; Binney 1970, p. 234; Białostocki & Kołoszyńska 1974, p. 42, no. 35, fig. 48; Reiss 1975, pp. 181, 208, no. 138 (mid-1650s); Murray 1980a, pp. 47–8;35 Murray 1980b, p. 12; Chadwick 1981, p. 6 (fig.); White 1982, p. 32, under no. 35; Moore 1988, pp. 51–2, fig. 38 (as the ‘Landscape with figures’ lent to the RA in 1816 and 1817);36 Chong 1992, n.p., no. 173; Chong 1993, pp. 424–5, no. 170; Chong 1995, p. 47; Lindsay & Reeve 1995; Chong 1996b, p. 297: ‘The composition and the crystalline Italianate light are derived directly from the work of Jan Both’; Powell 1998, pp. 58–9 (fig. 21); Beresford 1998, pp. 82–3;37 Shawe-Taylor 2000, p. 59; Wheelock 2001b, p. 22 (fig. 7), Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, pp. 63, 66; RKD, no. 52748: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/52748 (Dec. 9, 2017).
London 1824, p. 14, no. 64;38 London 1903, p. 25, no. 93; London/Leeds 1947–53, n.p., no. 5; London 1952–3, p. 37, no. 159 (ill. in Illustrated Souvenir); Dordrecht 1977–8, pp. 98–9, no. 35 (J. M. de Groot); Amsterdam/Boston/Philadelphia 1987–8, p. 303 under no. 25 (A. Chong); Madrid 1994, pp. 104–5, no. 19 (P. C. Sutton); London 1995, pp. 21 (fig.), 52–3, no. 9 (P. Lindsay and A. Reeve), and p. 47 (A. Chong); Houston/Louisville, 1999–2000, pp. 178–9, no. 60 (D. Shawe-Taylor); London 2002, p. 189, no. 51 (L. B. Harwood); Williamsburg/Fresno/Pittsburgh/Oklahoma City 2008–10, pp. 58–9, no. 15 (I. A. C. Dejardin).
Medium plain-weave canvas. Grey ground. Glue paste lined. The original tacking margins are absent and the original canvas is slightly smaller than the stretcher, measuring 113.2 x 168.8 cm. There is a region of discolouration in the middle of the bottom edge, where it is thought that a glaze containing a fugitive yellow pigment has faded. This has been re-toned. The painting previously suffered from extensive blanching which was successfully treated during the 1993 restoration campaign. Previous recorded treatment: 1864, lined, Morrell; cleaned, Merritt; 1977, blister-layed, surface cleaned, reformed using E. Jones mixture, restored, National Maritime Museum; 1993, relined, A. Reeve; cleaned, blanching treated, retouched, P. Lindsay.
1) Aelbert Cuyp, Evening Landscape, c. 1655–60, signed Acuijp, canvas, 101.6 x 153.6 cm. Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 405827; Chong 171 .39
2) Aelbert Cuyp, A Page with Two Horses, c. 1655–60, canvas, 143.2 x 228.1 cm. Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 405319; Chong 150 .40
3) Wood engraving of a piece of the foliage in Ruskin 1873, v, pt vi (‘Of Leaf Beauty’), ch. v (‘Leaf Aspects’), Fig. 2, Pl. 54.
Lent to the RA to be copied in 1816 (?), 1817(?),41 1836, 1841, and 1906.
This bucolic evening scene is a late work, probably c. 1660. The raking evening light and silhouetted trees, and the division of the landscape into two sections, reveal an appreciation of Jan Both, who had returned to the Netherlands from Italy in 1641. Similar effects can be seen in Cuyp’s Evening Landscape of about the same date (Related works, no. 1) . The buildings on the far side of the lake also appear in Cuyp’s Page with Two Horses of the mid-1650s (Related works, no. 2).
It has not proved possible to trace the provenance of DPG124 before its appearance in Desenfans’ ‘Polish’ sale in March 1802.
Road near a River, late 1650s
canvas, oil paint 115,6 x 170,6 cm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG124
Evening Landscape with Figures and Sheep, c. 1653-1659
canvas, oil paint 101,6 x 153,6 cm
lower right : Acuijp
Great Britain, The Royal Collection, inv./cat.nr. RCIN 405827
Page met twee horses, c. 1655-1660
canvas, oil paint 143,2 x 228,1 cm
Great Britain, The Royal Collection, inv./cat.nr. RCIN 405319
1 V&A ex.; Chong 1993, p. 442, no. B 18.
2 GPID (11 Aug. 2013): ‘Cuyp – A pleasing warm landscape with the true effect of the sunny lights illuminating the various pleasing objects’; annotated copy in MMA, New York: panel 1½ x 2 ft, ‘light green, a jewel truly’. The Barnard sale in 1798, which Murray 1980 mentions, probably never existed.
3 ‘A landskip with cattle and figures, by Cuyp, its companion [as painted by Asselijn and Berchem, engraved by Major]. The sun-shine, for which this master is so famous, is particularly fine in this picture.’ In the collection of John Barnard, Berkeley Square.
4 ‘Another excellent specimen […] This picture is finished in parts with great care, and contains more variety of objects than this artist usually introduced; but they are all blended together, not contrasted, and contribute to produce but one impression.’
5 A copy of Cat. 1830 in the NAL (79A) has handwritten crosses in the margins (by E. or C. Carson), from two to five. This work gets four crosses.
6 p. 307, no. 83: ‘A Landscape, with Travellers. Collection of Mr. Barnard – Sir S. Clarke, and G. Hibbert, Esq., 1802. 160 gs.’; p. 360, no. 261: ‘This beautiful scene is excellently engraved by T. Major, from the original, then in the Collection of John Barnard, Esq.’ DPG96 was not at auction in 1802, as an annotation in a copy of the sale catalogue (MMA, New York) describes that picture as ‘3 h. 2½ P[anel]. Castle & Brillt [i.e. brilliant] &c. 2 men horse’. What seems to be a similar but larger picture was later on the London art market: Walsh Porter sale, Christie’s, 22 March 1803 (Lugt 6577), lot 46 (‘Cuyp – A warm Landscape with Figures on Horseback descending from a mountainous pass to the right, and a River in the distance to the left, a rich glowing Scene with warm aërial effet: an engraved Picture, formerly in the Collection of Mr. Delme [annotation in RKD copy of catalogue: ‘2¼ 2 [i.e. 2¼ x 2] Bn [brown] Trees’]; bt in, £101 17s. See also note 11 below.
7 ‘This picture is finished in parts with great care, and contains more variety of objects than this artist usually introduced, but they are all blended together, not contrasted, and contribute to produce one impression.’
8 ‘Another landscape with animals is also a good picture by the master. (No. 141.)’
9 ‘Engraved by R. Cockburn; and by T. Major, in 1769. The picture was then in possession of John Barnard, Esq.’
10 ‘Especially attractive by the rich golden tone of the evening light, and by the warm shadows in the foreground.’
11 Hofstede de Groot follows Smith in suggesting that DPG96 was the picture sold at Christie’s on 14 May 1802. This is incorrect: see note 6 above.
12 ‘The signature seems perfectly authentic, but Reiss rejects the attribution.’
13 ‘The attribution to Cuyp was rejected by Reiss. Chong suggests that the picture is by a pupil working under Cuyp’s supervision.’
14 Reiss 1975, p. 195, no. 155; Chong 1993, p. 442, no. C 31, ‘Paintings incorrectly attributed to Cuyp. Rejected works’.
17 RKD, no. 291430: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/291430 (Sept. 18, 2018); see also https://museum.wales/art/online/?action=show_item&item=434 (July 20, 2020); Reiss 1975, p. 174, no. 131; Chong 1993, p. 445, no. C 2.
18 Reiss 1975, p. 155, no. 114; Chong 1993, pp. 387–8, no. 144 (Sm 241; HdG 550).
23 Letter from Lionel Owen to the Director, 3 April 1986 (DPG96 file).
24 It is possible that the picture was acquired for King Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, but there is no firm evidence.
25 Desenfans 1802, pp. 143–4, no. 142: ‘A Landscape with Cattle and Figures […] The fore-ground of this, represents the highway, on the right [NB in the descriptions in this catalogue, left and right are reversed] of which, is a shepherdess, dressed in blue, a straw hat on her head, and her crook in her hand; she is walking in conversation with a countryman mounted on a mule loaded with panniers, who seems to be passing by chance – a beautiful cluster of trees is in the centre, at the foot of which are two shepherds surrounded with sheep and their dogs – the left is enriched with shrubs and bushes, lining the bank of a river which is on the other side of the road, and in which two men thrown rather into the back-ground, are angling. At some little distance from them, are other figures at the door of a cottage beautifully surrounded by trees. The next objects are some mountains, which are detached with a masterly hand from a warm and silvery sky of the most fascinating effect. On canvas.’
26 ‘Ditto [= Albert Cuyp]. Ditto [= Landscape], with Figures and Animals’.
27 ‘This is a lovely picture, and much more elaborate than the preceding one [Patmore’s no. 3, DPG128]; but there is not that mysterious and poetical character which I seem to feel in the other: you can remember every part of it, and think of each separately; but of the other you can only remember the general effect.’
28 A copy of Cat. 1830 in the Library of DPG has handwritten crosses in the margins (by E. or C. Carson), from two to five. Like An Evening Ride near a River (DPG96), this work gets four crosses.
29 ‘Collection of Noel Desenfans, Esq., 1802; 180 gs. Now in the Dulwich Gallery.’
30 ‘This is a landscape consisting of two departments, divided from each other by a set of those light and elegantly foliaged trees which Claude so frequently ran up in the centre of his pictures. Its right hand department is a secluded spot shaded from the sun, and has a pool of clear water to make it still more cool, and two silent fishers to make it still more silent; while the left is all open, stretching away into the distance, and misty with heat, the hills seeming to quiver through the mist, as objects so that you see beyond an open space of sand and earth, from which the heat is rising; while over the mountain’s head a few fleecy clouds are hovering, as if they loved it and longed to rest upon it.’
31 ‘A rich, well-executed picture. […] No. 163.’
32 120 ‘§7 Niggling, therefore, essentially means disorganized and mechanical work, applied on a scale which may deceive a vulgar or ignorant person into the idea of its being true: a definition applicable to the whole of the leaf-painting of the Dutch landscapists in distant effect, and for the most part to that of their near subjects also. […] Cuyp and Wouvermans, as before stated, and others, in proportion to their power over the figure, drew leaves better in the foreground, yet never altogether well; for though Cuyp often draws a single leaf carefully (weedy ground-vegetation especially, with great truth), he never felt the connection of leaves, but scattered them on the boughs at random. Fig. 1 in Plate 54 is nearly a facsimile of part of the branch on the left side in our National Gallery picture [i.e. NG53]. Its entire want of grace and organization ought to be felt at a glance, after the work we have gone through. […] The average conditions of leafage-painting among the Dutch are better represented by Fig. 2, Plate 54, which is a piece of the foliage from the Cuyp in the Dulwich Gallery, No. 163 [=DPG124]. It is merely wrought with a mechanical play of brush in a well-trained hand, gradating the colour irregularly and agreeably, but with no more feeling or knowledge of leafage than a paperstainer shows in graining a pattern. A bit of the stalk is seen on the left; it might just as well have been on the other side, for any connection the leaves have with it. As the leafage retires into distance, the Dutch painters merely diminish their scale of touch. The touch itself remains the same, but its effect is falser; for though the separate stains or blots in Fig. 2, do not rightly represent the forms of leaves, they may not inaccurately represent the number of leaves on that spray. […] But in distance, when, instead of one spray, we have thousands in sight, no human industry, nor possible diminution of touch can represent their mist of foliage, and the Dutch work becomes doubly base, by reason of false form, and lost infinity.’
33 ‘This picture was No. 142 in Desenfans’ Catalogue. Under this picture he gives an interesting narration respecting the first importation of Cuyp’s works into this country.’
34 ‘A masterpiece of the artist, conspicuous by its broad and skilful execution’.
35 ‘Probably a late work, c. 1660. There is a similar picture in the Royal Collection.’
36 It is more plausible, however, that that was Herdsmen with Cows, DPG128: see note DPG128, note 59 above.
37 ‘One of Cuyp’s last works, dated by Chong to the end of the 1650s.’
38 ‘A Road Scene, with Travellers; Cuyp; Dulwich College’.
40 RKD, no. 215165: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/215165 (July 21, 2018); Shawe-Taylor 2010, pp. 164–5, 172, no. 41; Chong 1993, pp. 394–5, no. 150; White 1982, pp. 33–4, no. 37; Reiss 1975, p. 154, no. 113.
41 It is doubtful that this was the ‘Landscape with Figures’ lent to the RA in those years: see notes DPG128, note 59 and this page, note 36.