Dulwich Picture Gallery I

RKD STUDIES

Francina Margaretha van HUYSUM

Amsterdam, 1707–Amsterdam, 1780
Dutch painter and draughtswoman


Francina Margaretha van Huijsum was a daughter of Jan van Huijsum (1682-1749), who probably taught her to draw and paint flower and fruit still lifes. She lived in the same house as her uncle, or rather half-uncle, Michiel van Huysum (1703-1777). He appointed her his only heiress in his testament of 1776. Like Michiel van Huysum, she maintained close relations with the important Amsterdam 18th-century art collector Jan Jansz. Gildemeester (1744–99).

LITERATURE
Ellens & Segal 2006, pp. 24, 26, 342–3; not in Ecartico (April 23, 2020); RKDartists&, no. 372349: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/372349 (Francina Margaretha; 10 Jan. 2018).


DPG42 – A Chinese Bowl with Fruit

c. 1729; oak panel, 40 x 32.4 cm
Signed, lower left: f. [M] van Húÿsúm


PROVENANCE
?Gerret Braamcamp, 1752 (see Hoet 1752 under References); ?Braamcamp sale, Amsterdam, 31 July 1771 (Lugt 1950), lot 95, bt P. Fouquet;1 ?Evening Mail inventory, 1790–91 (Drawing Room: ‘A fruit piece’); ?Desenfans sale, Skinner and Dyke, 18 March 1802 (Lugt 6380), lot 145 (‘Van Huysum – A Fruit Piece’);2 ?Insurance 1804, no. 81 (‘Young Vanhuysum – A Flower Piece’, £500) or no. 85 (‘Old Vanhuysum – Flower Piece’, £500), but the fruit present in DPG42 is not referred to à propos either picture; Bourgeois Bequest, 1811; Britton 1813, p. 17, no. 157 (‘Upper-Room – East side of passage – contd. / no. 20, Fruit – (compn to 18 [DPG61]) – P[anel]. V. Huysum’; 1'10" x 1'7").

REFERENCES
Hoet 1752, ii, p. 503; Een dito [i.e. Porcelyne] Schaal met Vrugten, door denzelven [i.e. Jan van Huysum], h. 1 v. 4 en een half d., br. 1 v. 1 en een half d. P[anel] (a ditto [= a porcelain] bowl of fruit, by the same [= Jan van Huysum] Dutch dimensions, on panel); Descamps 1753–63, iv (1763), p. 235 (Braamcamp); Cat. 1817, p. 17, no. 329 (‘FIFTH ROOM – West Side; Flowers; J. Vanhuysum’) or no. 331 (‘FIFTH ROOM – West Side; Flowers; Vanhuysum’), but there is no mention of fruit; Haydon 1817, p. 398, no. 329 or 331 (both ‘J. Vanhuysum. Flowers’, no mention of fruit); Cat. 1820, p. 17, no. 329 or p. 17, no. 331 (both ‘Flowers’, no mention of fruit); Cat. 1830, p. 4, no. 29 (Fruit); Smith 1829–42, vi (1835), pp. 469–70, no. 23;3 Jameson 1842, ii, p. 447, no. 29 (Fruit in a China Basin); Waagen 1854, ii, p. 345;4 Denning 1858, no. 29 (ascribed to Van Huysum);5 Denning 1859, no. 29 (Van Huysum);6 Crowe 1874, book vi, ch. ii, p. 549;7 Sparkes 1876, p. 191, no. 29 (Jan van Huysum);8 Richter & Sparkes 1880, p. 78, no. 29;9 Richter & Sparkes 1892 and 1905, p. 10, no. 42; HdG, x, 1928, pp. 378–9, no. 205; Cook 1914, p. 24, no. 42; Cook 1926, pp. 23–4, no. 42; Cat. 1953, p. 24 (Van Huysum); Grant 1954, p. 28, no. 164; Bille 1961, ii, pp. 23–23a, no. 95 (with no. 96 ƒ2300) ; Morawińska 1974, p. 42, no. 34 (Jan van Huysum); Murray 1980a, p. 70 (Jan van Huysum); Murray 1980b, p. 16; Beresford 1998, p. 138 (Michiel van Huysum); Ellens & Segal 2006, pp. 24–6 (possibly Francina Margaretha van Huysum); Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, pp. 118–19 (Michiel or Francina Margaretha van Huysum); RKD, no. 118297: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/118297 (7 Jan. 2018: Francina Margaretha van Huysum).

EXHIBITION
London 1999b (ill. detail; no cat. no.; c. 1730).

TECHNICAL NOTES
Single-member oak panel with vertical grain, bevelled at the back edges. The ground preparation is white and over this the paint is quite thinly applied. This painting has suffered severely from overcleaning in the past: the yellow glazes of the leaves and grapes have been removed, along with much body paint. There is an area of noticeable abrasion to the lower-left corner and the edges have suffered wear from the frame. The paint surface has a fine craquelure all over. The signature is damaged: it has been converted at some time to read ‘Jan van Huysum’. Previous recorded treatment: 1881, surface dirt removed; 1947–70, Dr Hell.

DPG42
Francina Margaretha van Huysum
Chinese bowl with fruit, c. 1729
panel (oak), oil paint 40 x 32,4 cm
lower left : f. [M] van Húÿsúm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG42


DPG42
Francina Margaretha van Huysum
Chinese bowl with fruit, c. 1729
panel (oak), oil paint 40 x 32,4 cm
lower left : f. [M] van Húÿsúm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG42

DPG61
Francina Margaretha van Huysum
Flower still life in a porcelain vase on a mable slab, c. 1729
panel, oil paint 40 x 32,4 cm
lower left : f. [M] van Húÿsúm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG61


DPG61 – A Delft Vase with Flowers

c. 1729; oak panel, 40 x 32.4 cm
Signed, lower left: f. [M] van Húÿsúm


PROVENANCE
?Gerret Braamcamp, 1752 (see Hoet 1752 under References); ?Braamcamp sale, Amsterdam, 31 July 1771 (Lugt 1950), lot 96;10 ?Evening Mail inventory, 1790–91 (Drawing Room, ‘A flower piece’); Desenfans sale, Skinner and Dyke, London, 18 March 1802 (Lugt 6380), lot 144;11 ?Insurance 1804, no. 81 (‘Young Vanhuysum – A Flower Piece’), £500, or inv. no. 85 (‘Old Vanhuysum – Flower Piece’), £500; Bourgeois, 1807–11; Bourgeois Bequest, 1811; Britton 1813, p. 17, no. 155 (‘Upper Room – East side of passage – contd. / no. 18, Flower Piece – P[anel] V: Huysum’; 1'10" x 1'7").

REFERENCES
Hoet 1752, ii, p. 503, Een Porcelyne Flessche met Bloemen, door denzelven [= Jan van Huysum], h. 1 v. 4 en een half d., br. 1 v. 1 en een half d. P[anel]’ (A porcelain bottle with flowers, by the same [= Jan van Huysum], Dutch dimensions, on panel); Cat. 1817, p. 17, no. 329 (‘FIFTH ROOM – West Side; Flowers; J. Vanhuysum’) or no. 331 (‘FIFTH ROOM – West Side; Flowers; Vanhuysum’); Haydon 1817, p. 398, no. 329 or 331 (both ‘J. Vanhuysum. Flowers’); Cat. 1820, p. 17, no. 329 or p. 17, no. 331 (both ‘Flowers’); Cat. 1830, p. 4, no. 39 (Flowers); Smith 1829–42, vi (1835), pp. 469–70, no. 24;12 Jameson 1842, ii, p. 449, no. 39;13 Waagen 1854, ii, p. 345;14 Denning 1858, no. 39 (ascribed to John Van Huysum);15 Denning 1859, no. 39 (Jan van Huysum);16 Crowe 1874, pt ii, p. 549;17 Sparkes 1876, p. 191, no. 39 (Jan van Huysum);18 Richter & Sparkes 1880, p. 78, no. 39 (Jan van Huysum);19 Richter & Sparkes 1892 and 1905, pp. 14–15, no. 61; HdG, x, 1928, pp. 362–3, no. 114; Cook 1914, p. 35, no. 61; Cook 1926, p. 34, no. 61; Cat. 1953, p. 24 (‘Van Huysum’); Grant 1954, p. 22, no. 75; Morawińska 1974, p. 42, no. 33, fig. 47 (Jan van Huysum); Murray 1980a, p. 70 (Jan van Huysum); Murray 1980b, p. 16; Beresford 1998, p. 138 (Michiel van Huysum); Segal 2006, pp. 24, 342 (note 89) (Francina Margaretha van Huysum); Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, pp. 118–19 (Michiel or Francina Margaretha van Huysum); RKD, no. 118295: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/118295 (Jan. 7, 2018; Francina Margaretha van Huysum).

EXHIBITION
London 1999b (no cat. no.) c. 1730?

TECHNICAL NOTES
Single-member oak panel with vertical grain, bevelled at the back edges. The ground preparation is white and over this the paint is quite thinly applied. This painting has suffered severely from overcleaning in the past: the yellow glazes of the leaves and grapes have been removed, along with much body paint. There is an area of noticeable abrasion to the lower-left corner and the edges have suffered wear from the frame. The paint surface has a fine craquelure all over. The signature is damaged: it has been converted at some time to read ‘Jan van Huysum’. Previous recorded treatment: 1881,
surface dirt removed; 1947–70, Dr Hell.

DPG61
Francina Margaretha van Huysum
Flower still life in a porcelain vase on a mable slab, c. 1729
panel, oil paint 40 x 32,4 cm
lower left : f. [M] van Húÿsúm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG61


DPG42
Francina Margaretha van Huysum
Chinese bowl with fruit, c. 1729
panel (oak), oil paint 40 x 32,4 cm
lower left : f. [M] van Húÿsúm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG42

DPG61
Francina Margaretha van Huysum
Flower still life in a porcelain vase on a mable slab, c. 1729
panel, oil paint 40 x 32,4 cm
lower left : f. [M] van Húÿsúm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG61


1
Francina Margaretha van Huysum
Fruit still life in a porcelain bowl on a marble top, 1729
canvas, oil paint 39,9 x 32,3 cm
lower left : f. M. Van Húijsúm
Cambridge (England), Fitzwilliam Museum, inv./cat.nr. PD.31-1975

2
Francina Margaretha van Huysum
Flower still life in a porcelain vase on a marble slab, 1729 (dated)
canvas, oil paint 39,9 x 32,3 cm
lower left : F. M. Van Húijsúm / 1729
Cambridge (England), Fitzwilliam Museum, inv./cat.nr. PD.30-1975


3
Oswald Wijnen after Francina Margaretha van Huysum
Fruit still life in a porcelain bowl on a marble top
paper, watercolor, pen in black ink 395 x 326 mm
Haarlem, Teylers Museum, inv./cat.nr. V39

4
Oswald Wijnen after Francina Margaretha van Huysum
Flower still life in a porcelain vase on a marble top
paper, watercolor, pen in black ink 411 x 325 mm
Haarlem, Teylers Museum, inv./cat.nr. V38


RELATED WORKS
1a) Francina Margaretha van Huysum, A Dish of Fruit, signed f. M. Van Húijsúm, canvas, 39.9 x 32.2 cm. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, PD.31-1975 [1].20
1b) Francina Margaretha van Huysum, A Vase of Flowers, signed and dated f. M. Van Húijsúm / 1729, canvas, 39.9 x 32.3 cm. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, PD.30-1975 [2].21
2a) Copy after no. 1a (?): Oswald Wijnen, A Delft Bowl with Fruit, brush with watercolour and pen in black, 395 x 326 mm. Teylers Museum, Haarlem, V39 [3].22
2b) Copy after no. 1b (?): Oswald Wijnen, A Vase of Flowers, brush with watercolour and pen in black, 411 x 325 mm. Teylers Museum, Haarlem, V38 [4].23
3) Jan Matthias Cok after 1b or DPG61, A Flower Still Life in a Blue Vase, signed and dated Jan Matthias Cok del. 1756 na Van Huysum (verso), pen and brush in colour, 399 x 329 mm. Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main, 3502.24

A Chinese Bowl with Fruit and A Delft Vase with Flowers comprise a pair, probably intended as such by the artist. The former shows a kraak porcelain dish with grapes, a peach, raspberries, and an apricot, sitting on a ledge with an open walnut beside it. Ants can be seen crawling over the fruit and two butterflies are alighting on it. The latter depicts a Delft vase on a marble shelf with flowers comprising roses, carnations, buttercups and orange blossom; two butterflies are on the flowers, another flits through the air, and at the foot of the vase is a snail. Kraak porcelain is a type of blue-and-white ware produced in China from the time of the Wanli dynasty (1563–1620) until about 1640. Expressly manufactured for export – its name comes from the Portuguese ships, carracks, in which it was transported – it was extremely popular in Europe. It was usually decorated with stylized flowers such as chrysanthemums and peonies, and was often copied by Delft potters.

It is unclear whether these two paintings were intended to be symbolic. The short lifespan of the fruit, blossoms and butterflies implies a vanitas (or memento mori) theme; the snail and ants are presumably about to consume the flowers and fruit, and the apricot looks as if it is beginning to rot.

As both Fred Meijer and Sam Segal noted, the Dulwich pictures are versions of a pair in Cambridge (where they are considered to be by Michiel van Huysum) signed by Francina Margaretha van Huysum, one of which bears her signature and the date 1729 (Related works, nos 1a and 1b) [1-2].25 The Dulwich paintings are no doubt roughly contemporary with the Cambridge pair, but time has been less kind to them. The signatures on both the Dulwich pictures were converted at some time to read ‘Jan van Huysum’, and in each case the ‘M’ is now defaced. Originally both pairs were attributed to Jan van Huijsum, but later, in the 1950s, the Cambridge pair were attributed to Michiel van Huysum, as were the Dulwich pictures in the 1970s.26 But as both pairs seem to have been signed by Francina Margaretha, it is more probable that they were painted by her.27

The provenances of the pairs in Dulwich and Cambridge – although these are full of gaps and assumptions – indicate that they were in important Amsterdam collections, the Dulwich pair with Gerret Braamcamp (1699–1771) and the Cambridge pair with Cornelis Ploos van Amstel (1726–98). It is well known that these 18th-century Amsterdam collectors had warm relations with contemporary artists. Among other things, they allowed them to make copies of masterpieces in their collections of paintings and drawings. An example is Oswald Wijnen (1739–90), whose drawn copies, now kept in Haarlem (Related works, nos 2a, 2b) [3-4], were probably made at Ploos van Amstel’s, possibly for him.28 After the 2016 catalogue was published Charles Dumas brought to my attention another drawn copy by the 18th-century Dutch auctioneer and artist Jan Matthias Cok (1720–71), now in Frankfurt (Related works, no. 3). That drawing – with about the same dimensions as DPG61 – has an inscription that refers to the original by ‘Van Huysum’, meaning Jan van Huijsum. Cok knew both Gerret Braamcamp and Cornelis Ploos van Amstel.29 In the catalogue of the sale of Braamcamp’s drawings in 1768 20 drawings by Cok are mentioned, among them three that are most probably copies of pictures in Braamcamp’s collection.30 The Ploos van Amstel sale catalogue in 1800 includes 20 drawings by Cok as well, most of them copies after 17th-century Dutch masters, possibly in Ploos’s collection.31 Hence it is just as likely that Cok made this drawing after a painting in the collection of Braamcamp as after one in the collection of Ploos van Amstel. Another Amsterdam sale catalogue of 1799 shows that Cok seems to have made a copy, now lost, after its pair, Related works, no. 1a (or DPG42).32 In any case the images of a Chinese bowl with fruit and Delft vase with flowers were popular in 18th-century Amsterdam.


Notes

1 ‘HUYZUM (Jan van), Hoog 16, en breed 13 duim. Pnl. Verbeeldende een’ Porceleinen schotel, waar in een losse tros witte en roode Druiven ligt tusschen eenige Persiken, Abricoosen, en Pruimen; alles geplaatst op een Tafel van geel Marmer, en tegen een’ helderen grond uitkomende (Dutch dimensions, panel, depicting a porcelain bowl, where in a loose bunch of white and red grapes lie some peaches, apricots, and plums; everything is set on a table of yellow marble, and stands out against a light background); with no. 96, see also Bille 1961, ii, pp. 23, 23a; P. Fouquet bought the pair for ƒ2,300. See also note 10 below.

2 Desenfans 1802, ii, pp. 128–9, no. 137, ‘on copper’; in RKD copy of the catalogue dimensions are given as ‘18 h. 12’.

3 ‘A China Basin, containing peaches, an apricot, and bunches of grapes, placed on a marble table’. See also note 12 below.

4 ‘A fruit and flower piece on a bright ground are of very delicate quality, especially the first. On panel […] (Nos. 29 and 39)’.

5 ‘This may be rather Abraham Mignon’s.’ Denning also mentions the Braamcamp provenance, Descamps’ description of the two companion pieces (now DPG 42 and DPG61), and the Smith numbers (nos 23 and 24).

6 ‘They are […] in Van Huysum’s later style, and not equal to the two larger specimens’ (DPG120 and DPG139).

7 ‘Of those in England I may mention a fruit and a flower piece, Nos. 29 and 39, in the Dulwich Gallery’.

8 Sparkes mentions Braamcamp, the price for which the pictures were sold (207l.), the Smith numbers, and their number in the Desenfans sale (no. 137); see Desenfans 1802, as on copper; see also the Provenance of DPG42.

9 They give the same information as Sparkes 1876, but they add Waagen 1854 and Crowe 1874.

10 ‘HUYZUM (Jan van), Hoog 16, en breed 13 duim. Pnl. Een Porceleinen Pot met eenige Bloemen, waar in de Hoofdgroep een roode Roozentak verbeeldt, nevens welke verscheide andere bloemen geplaatst zyn; op de Tafel, waar op de Pot staat, ligt een tak Anjelieren (Dutch dimensions, panel. A porcelain pot with some flowers, where in the main group a branch with red roses is depicted, next to which there are several other flowers; on the table where the pot stands is a spray of carnations), bt P. Fouquet, with lot 95 for ƒ2,300, see also Bille 1961, ii, pp. 23, 23a. See also note 1 above.

11 See note 2 above (Desenfans 1802).

12 ‘The Companion. A China Cup, in which are grouped two roses, a sprig of orange flowers, and carnations; one of the latter, of the variegated kind, has partly fallen from the cluster on the table, where a snail is creeping. Both these are painted on a light ground. 1 ft. 4 in. by 1 ft. 1 in. – P[anel]. Collection of M. Braamcamp, 1771 2300 flo. 207l. Now in the Dulwich gallery.’ See also note 3 above.

13 ‘The companion. Both painted on a light ground. These two pieces were sold from the Braamcamp Collection, in 1771, for 207l.’

14 See note 4 above.

15 See note 5 above.

16 See note 6 above.

17 See note 7 above.

18 See note 8 above.

19 See note 9 above.

20 RKD, no. 119201: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/119201 (Jan. 10, 2018; Francina Margaretha van Huysum); see also https://artuk.org/discover/artworks/a-dish-of-fruit-4527/ (as Michiel van Huysum; April 23, 2020); Roe 2006, p. 95, no. PD.31-1975 (Michiel van Huysum). This and the following (PD.30-1975) were in the collection of Cornelis Ploos van Amstel, who bought them at the Amsterdam sale of Diderick Smith, 13 July ff. 1761 (Lugt 1165), p. 3, no. 5: Een stuk met veelderlei soorten van Vrugten, schoon en kragtig geschildert door F. M. van Huyzum, zo goet als J. Van Huyzum, hoog 15½, br. 12½ d.’; bt Corn:. Ploos 71’ (A piece with several kinds of fruit, beautifully and powerfully painted by F. M. van Huyzum, as good as J. Van Huyzum, Dutch dimensions; bt. by Cornelis Ploos van Amstel ƒ71); no. 6: Een pot met Bloemen, niet minder als de voorgaande, door denzelve, en van dezelfde hoogte en breette, dito; 95 (A pot with flowers, not inferior to the previous picture, by the same, and with the same dimensions; bt by the same ƒ95).

21 RKD, no. 119200: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/119200 (April 23, 2020; Francina Margaretha van Huysum); see also https://artuk.org/discover/artworks/a-vase-of-flowers-4526/ (April 23, 2020; as Michiel van Huysum); see the preceding note.

22 RKD, no. 118298: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/118298 (April 23, 2020); see also https://www.teylersmuseum.nl/en/collection/art/v-039-stilleven-met-fruit-in-een-porseleinen-schaal (April 23, 2020).

23 RKD, no. 118299: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/118299 (April 23, 2020); see also https://www.teylersmuseum.nl/en/collection/art/v-038-stilleven-met-bloemen-in-een-vaas (April 23, 2020).

24 RKD, no. 299063: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/299063 (Dec. 15, 2020); see also https://sammlung.staedelmuseum.de/en/work/ein-blumenbouquet-in-blauer-vase-mit-drei-schmetterlingen (Dec. 13, 2020). With many thanks to Charles Dumas, who pointed out that there was another copy of DPG61: emails to Ellinoor Bergvelt, 13 Dec. 2020 (DPG42 and DPG61 file). See also his forthcoming article about Cok, Dumas 2021b. The copy could of course also have been made after Related works, no. 1b. Cok had probably also made a copy after its pair as they were both mentioned in an Amsterdam sale catalogue of 1799 (Lugt 5922), p. 27, nos C (Op een steene Tafel staat een Porcelyne Schaal, gevuld met smakelyke vrugten, als blauwe en witte Druiven, Persiken en ander Fruit, uitvoerig met zapverven geteekend door J. M. Cock, naar J. van Huysum (On a stone table is a porcelain bowl, filled with tasty fruits, such as blue and white grapes, peaches and other fruit, elaborately drawn in watercolour by J. M. Cock, after J. van Huysum)) and D (een dito in 't zelve ziet men een dito Vaas, gevuld met keurige Bloemen, waar op eenige Insecten aazen en waterdroppels op gezien worden in alles als voorige behandeld met dito, zynde de wederga, door denzelven (a ditto in which one sees a ditto Vase, filled with neat flowers, on which a few insects are feeding and water drops are seen in everything as previously treated with ditto, being the counterpart, by the same one)); sold together for ƒ 25; buyer unknown. According to Almut Pollmer (email to Ellinoor Bergvelt, 14 Dec. 2020; DPG42 and DPG61 files) the drawing came from the collection of Johann Georg Grambs (1756–1817), a lawyer and one of the first ‘Administrators’ of the art institute in Frankfurt, who died in the year it was founded (1817). It is very probable that Grambs himself or an intermediary was present at the Amsterdam sale in 1799. Additional information came from Martin Sonnabend, also Städel Museum, email to Ellinoor Bergvelt, 19 Jan. 2021 (DPG42 and DPG61 files): the earliest list of Grambs’ drawings, ‘drawn up around 1825, mentions in fact two works by Jan Matthias Kok after Jan van Huysum: “Deux pendans, l’un représente un bouquet de fleurs et l’autre un groupe de fruits. En couleurs par Matthias Cok d’après J. van Huysum.” The Bouquet is obviously inv. 3502, the pendant, on the other hand, has been sold in 1863: Montmorillon, München, 23.11.1863 (Lugt 27550), lot 56.’ In any case: it is probable that Grambs purchased the pair in Amsterdam in 1799 and it is certain that the two drawings remained together until 1863. Many thanks to Almut Pollmer-Schmidt and Martin Sonnabend.

25 The signature F.M. van Huysum is also mentioned in the 1761 sale catalogue of Smith (Lugt 1165), where Ploos van Amstel bought his pair, see note 20; see also Segal 2006, p. 26.

26 In Grant (1952, p. 65) the Cambridge pair were attributed to Michiel van Huysum. Segal gave the same attribution for the Dulwich pictures in 1976 (see RKD website).

27 Segal changed his attributions to Francina Margaretha in the 2006 catalogue (p. 26).

28 Segal (2006, p. 22) says that Wijnen coloured some etchings after Jan van Huijsum for Cornelis Ploos van Amstel, and assisted him in his colour research. Ploos van Amstel was experimenting with all kinds of techniques and materials to make prenttekeningen or facsimiles of old master drawings: see Laurentius, Niemeijer & Ploos van Amstel 1980. So far nothing is known of a relationship between Braamcamp and Wijnen.

29 He is known to have acted on Braamcamp’s behalf at sales, and we know exactly which pictures he bought for him. He was the auctioneer of Braamcamp’s sale of pictures in 1766, for the catalogue of which he drew the vignette on the title page (Bille 1961, i, p. 33–6): Braamcamp sale, Amsterdam, 4 June 1766 (Lugt 1550). Cok bought 11 pictures at that sale for ƒ309. Charles Dumas email to Ellinoor Bergvelt, 16 Dec. 2020, for which many thanks. See also his article, Dumas 2021b.

30 Bille 1961, i, p. 49. Braamcamp et al. sale, Amsterdam, 29 Feb. 1768 (Lugt 1660), nos 144-6.

31 Lugt 6031, see Cobbenhagen-Verhaak 1980, p. 343; with many thanks to Charles Dumas for several emails to Ellinoor Bergvelt, 13 Dec. 2020 (DPG42 and DPG61 files).

32 See note 24 above.

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