Dulwich Picture Gallery I

RKD STUDIES

Karel du JARDIN

Amsterdam, baptised 27 September 1626–Venice, buried 9 October 1678
Dutch painter, etcher and draughtsman


Karel du Jardin (sometimes Dujardin) [1] was the son of Charles de Jardin or Gardyn, a fat-renderer. It is unclear who his master was. His 18th-century biographer Arnold Houbraken suggested that it was the landscape painter Nicholaes Berchem (1621/2–83), but that may have been a guess because their subject-matter sometimes overlaps, and so too may be the suggestions that Pieter van Laer (1599–1642) or Paulus Potter (1625–54) was his teacher. Du Jardin’s brother-in-law was a painter, Johannes Pauwelsz. Schors, from Augsburg, and his second cousin was the portraitist Pieter Nason (1612–88/90), who is also represented at Dulwich.

There is no evidence that Du Jardin visited Italy in his youth.1 He did however travel to France as a merchant in 1649, and in the same year he was married in Paris.2 He and his wife had moved to the Rozengracht in Amsterdam by 1652, when Du Jardin made his will. Some time between 1655 and October of the following year he moved to The Hague, where he was one of the founders of Pictura, the artists’ confraternity, in 1657. By May 1659 he had returned to Amsterdam, and he is documented in the city in 1670, 1671 and 1674.

In 1675 Du Jardin sailed for Italy, accompanied by Gerard and Abraham Reynst, whose father Gerard and uncle Jan in Amsterdam shared an outstanding collection of 16th- and 17th-century Italian paintings and Antique sculpture imported from Venice.3 In Rome Du Jardin may have become a member of the Schildersbent, the Netherlandish artists’ association: he was given a characteristic nickname, ‘Bokkebaard’ (goat beard). He died on a visit to Venice.

Du Jardin’s œuvre consists mainly of small Italianate landscapes that depict country people with animals. These are executed with fine detail, bright colours, and strong contrasts of light and shade. He also made drawings, mainly in chalk, and from the 1650s he produced some fifty etchings. In the 1660s he painted portraits of members of Amsterdam’s ruling classes. Among these, The Regents of the Spinhuis and the Nieuwe Werkhuis (1669) [2]4 was considered in 1808 with Rembrandt’s Nightwatch and Syndics to be one of the seven most important of the city’s paintings: Louis Napoleon (1778–1846), who was King of Holland (1806–10), ordered them to be placed as a loan from the city in his Royal Museum, the forerunner of the Rijksmuseum. Du Jardin also produced large-scale religious and history paintings that reflect his interest in contemporary Italian 17th-century painting. His late Italian landscapes are dramatically different from those done in the Netherlands, with small figures in large Italianate settings painted in smoky colours.

LITERATURE
Houbraken 1753, iii, pp. 56–61; Brochhagen 1958; Blankert 1978/1965, pp. 195–7; Kilian 1996b; Schatborn 2001, pp. 154–60, 210–11; Saur, xxx, 2001, pp. 422–3 (J. M. Kilian); Kilian 2005; Bikker 2009; Ecartico, no. 2652: http://www.vondel.humanities.uva.nl/ecartico/persons/2652 (March 6, 2017); Levert 2017; RKDartists&, no. 24701: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/24701 (April 11, 2020).

1
Karel du Jardin
Self portrait of Karel Dujardin (1626-1678), 1658 (dated)
paper, red chalk 304 x 230 mm
lower left : Carel dv / jardin / 1658
London (England), British Museum, inv./cat.nr. 1836,0811.325

2
Karel du Jardin
Governors of the Spinhuis and the Nieuwe Werkhuis, with a servant, Amsterdeam, 1669, dated 1669
canvas, oil paint 225 x 390 cm
left center : Anno:1669 / KAREL:DU:IARDIN:fec
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./cat.nr. SK C 4


DPG82 – A Smith shoeing an Ox

c. 1655–60; oil on canvas, 38 x 42.8 cm
Signed, bottom right: K. DV. IARDIN. fe


PROVENANCE
Cornelis van Dijck, The Hague, inventory 16 Aug. 1703, Municipal Archives, The Hague, no. 1262; Cornelis van Dyck, 1713; his sale, The Hague, 9–10 May 1713 (Lugt 241), lot 6: Hoet 1752, i, p. 159, no. 6 (10 May 1713): Nog een stuk van Carel du Jardyn, verbeeldende een Os, die Beslagen word voor een Smidts Winckel, van zyn aldertederste en eelste kouleur, zeer aengenaem en schoon (Another piece by Carel du Jardyn, depicting an Ox, being shod, in front of a farrier’s shop, in his most tender and most noble colour, very pleasant and beautiful), sold for ƒ107; Joan Hendrick van Heemskerck, The Hague, before 1730; his sale and that of Anna van Schuylenburch, dowager Joan Hendrick van Heemskerck, The Hague, 29–30 March 1770 (Lugt 1818), lot 64: Jardin. (Carel du), Een Hoefsmits-Winkel. D. Hoog 14½ breed 16½ duim. Voor deze winkel staat een Os, van te zyde te zien, die beslagen word. By de Smit, die vast bezig is, ziet men een Jongen, en daar achter een Heer met ene gryze Mantel om. Voorts een Brabandsche Kar en eenige Hoenders. &c. Zynde warm, zonachtig en fraai gepenceeld (A farrier’s shop. [Dutch dimensions] In front of this shop is an ox, seen from the side, being shod. Next to the farrier, who is holding on firmly, you see a boy, and behind him a gentleman in a grey cloak. Also a Brabant carriage and some poultry, etc., painted warmly, sunny and beautifully), bt J. van der Marck, ƒ305; his sale, Amsterdam, 25 Aug. 1773 (Lugt 2189), lot 142: Jardyn (Karel du), No 142. Een Smidswinkel op Doek, h. 14¼ b. 16½ duim. Voor dezelve werd een Os door een Smits Knegt beslagen, waar by staat een Heer met een Mantel om en een Jongen met eenige Spykers in zyn Schootsvel. In de Winkel ziet men een Smit bezig met smeeden; loopende voor het huis eenige Hoenderen by een Kar. Zeer delicaat en Zonagtig behandeld (A farrier’s shop on canvas, [Dutch dimensions]. In front of it was an ox being shod by a farrier’s servant; beside are a gentleman in a cloak and a boy with some nails in his apron. In the shop you see a farrier busy forging; in front of the house some poultry are running near a carriage), bt Van der Schley, ƒ330; Catherina Bullens (widow of Justus Oosterdijk) sale, Amsterdam, 23 July 1777 (Lugt 2726), lot 15: Een Italiaansche Hoefsmits Winkel, waar voor men bezig is een roode Os te beslaan, in ’t byzyn van een Man en Jonge, door C. du Jardin, zeer fraai geschildert. Hoog 14¼ duim, breed 16½ [?] duim, D’ (An Italian farrier’s shop, in front of which someone is busy shoeing a red ox, in the presence of a man and boy, by C. du Jardin, very beautifully painted, [Dutch dimensions]), bt Gilden, ƒ510; P. van Spijk, Leiden; his sale, Leiden, 23 April 1781 (Lugt 3255), lot 44: K. du Jardin 44. For description see Van der Marck sale above (Hoog 14¼, breed 16¼ duim. Dit Schildery is uit het Cabinet van den Heere VAN DER MARCK gekomen ([Dutch dimensions.] This picture comes from the cabinet of Mr Van der Marck), sold for ƒ371; Jan Gildemeester, Amsterdam; his sale, Amsterdam, 11 June 1800 (Lugt 6102), lot 103: Haut 15, large 17 pouces. Sur toile. Un Maréchal Ferrant. Vers le milieu du tableau se voit un boeuf attaché par les cornes, qu'un maréchal ferre au pied de derrière; devant celui-ci se tient un homme en manteau parlant à un garçon: un charriot vide est en arrière, & le fond présente la boutique du maréchal. Quelques poules mangeant d'un bac terminent cet ensemble. La belle fonte & l'harmonie des couleurs, la légèreté & l’extrême delicatesse de la touche, brillent au plus haut point dans ce tableau’ ([Dutch dimensions.] On canvas. A farrier's. Near the centre of the picture is an ox attached by the horns, whose hind leg is being shod by a farrier; in front of him is a man in a cloak talking to a boy; an empty carriage is behind, and the background shows the farrier’s shop. Some hens eating out of a vessel complete the ensemble. The beautiful melting and harmony of colours, the lightness and extreme delicacy of the touch, shine brilliantly in this picture), bt [?Jan] Yver for ƒ814 (ms. note in the catalogue in the NG Library gives the price as ƒ840); George Crawford, Rotterdam and London; his sale, Christie’s, 26 April 1806 (Lugt 7075), lot 1: ‘K. Du Jardin. 1. Outside of a Farrier’s Shop; a Farrier shoeing an Ox; a Peasant and a Boy standing by. Painted in a thin but clear tone; the sky silvery and brilliant – a sweet gem’, bt North for 120 gs (£126) (according to Buchanan 1824, ii, p. 181; ms. note in RKD copy of the catalogue: ‘Genl Sir Js Erskine has one of the same subject’); Bourgeois Bequest, 1811; Britton 1813, p. 33, no. 356 (‘Closet to S – Drawing Room / no. 8, Shoeing an Ox – 3 figures, buildgs C[anvas] C. Du Jardin’; 1'10" x 2'0").

REFERENCES
Hoet 1752, i, p. 159, no. 6 (in the coll. of Cornelis van Dijck, The Hague); Cat. 1817, p. 12, no. 215 (‘CENTRE ROOM – East Side; A Smith shoeing an Ox; Karel du Jardin’); Haydon 1817, p. 392, no. 215; Cat. 1820, p. 12, no. 215; Buchanan 1824, ii, p. 181, no. 1 (Crawford coll.); Cat. 1830, p. 11, no. 229; Smith 1829–42, v (1834), p. 236, under no. 15;5 Smith 1829–42, ix (1842), p. 646, no. 26 (version no. 1);6 Jameson 1842, ii, p. 480, no. 229;7 Denning 1858, no. 229;8 not in Denning 1859; Sparkes 1876, p. 59, no. 229; Richter & Sparkes 1880, pp. 59–60, no. 229;9 Richter & Sparkes 1892 and 1905, p. 21, no. 82; Cook 1914, p. 47, no. 82;10 Cook 1926, p. 45, no. 82; HdG, ix, 1926, pp. 386–7, under no. 336 (second version); Cat. 1953, p. 18; Brochhagen 1958, p. 57, note 214; Murray 1980a, p. 52;11 Murray 1980b, p. 13; Levine 1984, pp. 70, 100; Beresford 1998, pp. 94–5 (probably painted in the late 1650s); Kilian 2005, pp. 156–7 (no. 45), 344 (fig. 38); Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, pp. 75–6; RKD, no. 52764: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/52764 (March 6, 2017).

EXHIBITIONS
London 1824, p. 16, no. 116; London 1952–3, p. 98, no. 530; London/Washington/Los Angeles 1985–6 , pp. 50–51, no. 5 (C. Brown); Tokyo/Shizuoka/Osaka/Yokohama 1986–7, pp. 64–5, no. 6 (in Japanese; C. Brown); Warsaw 1992, pp. 68–9, no. 7 (C. Brown); Houston/Louisville 1999–2000, pp. 164–5, no. 53 (D. Shawe-Taylor); London 2002, pp. 146–7, no. 33 (L. B. Harwood); Williamsburg/Fresno/Pittsburgh/Oklahoma City 2008–10, pp. 66–7, no. 19 (I. A. C. Dejardin).

TECHNICAL NOTES
Fine plain-weave linen canvas. Glue-paste lined; the original tacking margins are present. There is some slightly raised craquelure and minor wear, but otherwise the paint surface is in good condition. Previous recorded treatment: 1984, surface cleaned, blanching treated, retouched and varnished, National Maritime Museum, S. Sanderson.

RELATED WORKS
1) Copy of DPG82: canvas, 36.5 x 42 cm. University of Edinburgh Fine Art Collection, Torrie Bequest (1835), EU 720; NGS 26 [3].12
2) Copy of DPG82: panel, 37 x 45 cm. Present whereabouts unknown (Christie’s, Amsterdam, 2 Dec. 1987, lot 287; The Hague, 22 Feb. 1966, lot 55).13
3) Manner of Karel du Jardin, An Italian Farrier, 38.6 x 43.7 cm. Present whereabouts unknown (Barend Kooy, Amsterdam, 20 April 1820 (Lugt 9773), lot 43; ƒ58 to Zweers).14 This could be no. 1 or 2.
4) Paulus Potter, The Farrier’s Shop, signed and dated ‘paulus potter f. 1648’, panel, 48.3 x 45.7 cm. NGA, Washington, Widener Collection, 1942.9.52 [4].15
5) Cornelis Visscher II after Pieter van Laer, The Farrier, etching, 200 x 282 mm. RPK, Amsterdam, RP-P-OB-62.109 [5].16

Lent to the RA to be copied in 1829 and 1855.

The attribution has never been in doubt. The picture shows the shoeing of an ox in an Italian courtyard. It is a typical bamboccianti subject, enjoying the commonplace scene of working life. The naturalism of the ox, on the other hand, demonstrates Du Jardin's familiarity with the work of Paulus Potter (Related works, no. 4) [4] and Pieter van Laer, known for instance through a print by Cornelis Visscher II (c. 1628/9–58; Related works, no. 5) [5]. Du Jardin painted scenes such as this for a relatively short period. Brochhagen dated the picture to the second half of the 1650s.

DPG82 was at one time in the collection of George Crawford or Craufurd, a Scottish merchant who had spent much of his life in Rotterdam. At the sale of his collection in 1806 the picture was bought, along with DPG78 (Wouwerman), by ‘North’, who seems likely to have been acting for Bourgeois, a friend of the Crawford family. A version of DPG82 in Edinburgh (Related works, no. 1) [3] was deemed the original by Hofstede de Groot, but is considered to be a copy by more recent authors.17 In a copy of the 1806 sale catalogue (RKD, The Hague) there is the note, ‘Genl Sir Js Erskine [third Baronet of Torrie] has one of the same subject’, proving that DPG must be the Crawford picture, as the Edinburgh picture was already in Scotland by that date.18

DPG82
Karel du Jardin
Smith shoeing an Ox, c. 1655-1660
canvas, oil paint 38 x 42,8 cm
lower right : K·DV·IARDIN·fe
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG82

3
after Karel du Jardin
Smith shoeing an Ox, c. 1652-c. 1750
canvas, oil paint 36,5 x 42 cm
Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh, inv./cat.nr. EU 720

4
Paulus Potter
Farrier's Shop, dated 1648
panel, oil paint 48.3 x 45.7 cm
Washington (D.C.), National Gallery of Art (Washington), inv./cat.nr. 1942.9.52

5
Cornelis Visscher (II) after Pieter van Laer
Farrier, 1638-1658
paper, etching 200 x 282 mm
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./cat.nr. RP-P-OB-62.109


DPG72 – Peasants and a White Horse

c. 1676?, oil on canvas, 44.1 x 39.7 cm
Brochhagen read ‘.676’19


PROVENANCE
Desenfans sale, Skinner and Dyke, 18 Mar. 1802 (Lugt 6380), lot 148;20 Insurance 1804, no. 89: ‘Karel du Jardin – A Landscape’, £150; Bourgeois Bequest, 1811; Britton 1813, p. 3, no. 21 (‘Small parlour / no. 21, Lande with horse, sheep, Ass &c crackd – Can[vas]; Jardin’; 2'x 2').

REFERENCES
Cat. 1817, p. 12, no. 217 (‘CENTRE ROOM – East Side; A Landscape, with Cattle and Figures; K. du Jardin’); Haydon 1817, p. 392, no. 217;21 Cat. 1820, p. 12, no. 217; Cat. 1830, p. 5, no. 62; Smith 1829–42, v (1834), p. 251, no. 55;22 Jameson 1842, ii, p. 453, no. 62;23 Denning 1858 and 1859, no. 62;24 Sparkes 1876, pp. 58–9, no. 62; Richter & Sparkes 1880, p. 60, no. 62;25 Richter & Sparkes 1892 and 1905, pp. 18–19, no. 72; Cook 1914, pp. 41–2; Cook 1926, p. 40; HdG, ix, 1926, p. 313, no. 70; Cat. 1953, p. 18; Paintings 1954, pp. 11, [59]; Brochhagen 1957, pp. 241, 243 (fig. 7), 244, 255; Brochhagen 1958, p. 128, note 420 (lower left ‘.676’); Murray 1980a, p. 52; Murray 1980b, p. 12; Levine 1986, pp. 70, 100, note 2; Trnek 1986, p. 90, under no. 29; Trnek 1992, pp. 124, under no. 43, p. 126, under no. 44 (fig. 44a); Beresford 1998, p. 94 (a late work); Kilian 2005, p. 224, no. 152, pl. 123 (c. 1676); CD-rom of Faroult 2007, p. 286, under M.I. 935 (B. Ducos and V. Verduron); Foucart & Foucart-Walter 2009, p. 125 (under no. M.I. 935); Dejardin 2009b, pp. 14–5; Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, pp. 76–7; RKD, no. 225951: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/225951 (March 6, 2017).

EXHIBITIONS
Aberystwyth 1947, p. 10, no. 22 (M. Ellis); London 1952–3, p. 90, no. 475; Warsaw 1992, pp. 70–71, no. 8 (C. Brown); Bath 1999, n.p., no. 3 (A. Sumner); Williamsburg/Fresno/Pittsburgh/Oklahoma City 2008–10, pp. 64–5, no. 18 (I. A. C. Dejardin).

TECHNICAL NOTES
Fairly coarse plain-weave linen canvas. The paint seems to have been applied in a fairly fluid state, although there is some low impasto. Beva-lined; none of the original tacking margins remain. There are two old restored tears. It appears that an original green glaze in the foreground has darkened slightly. This painting is in good condition. Previous recorded treatment: 1949–52, Dr Hell; 1980, consolidation, minor retouching, National Maritime Museum by C. Hampton; 1992, local consolidation, N. Ryder; 1997, relined, cleaned and restored, Nicole Ryder.

RELATED WORKS
1a) Karel du Jardin, White Horse in an Italian Landscape, signed K. Du.Jardin, canvas, 53.5 x 44.3 cm. Louvre, Paris, M.I. 935 [6].26
1b) Karel du Jardin, A Boy on a Horse Drinking at a Stream, a Girl with a Flat Basket on Her Head, a Cow, Goats, and Sheep, signed and dated 1676, red chalk on paper, 191 x 262 mm. The Morgan Library, New York, I, 142a (formerly II, 77).27
2) Paulus Potter, The Worn-out Horse, 1652, etching, 162 x 242 mm. RPK, Amsterdam, RP-P-OB-4636 [7].28
3a) Karel du Jardin, The Worn-out Horse, 1652, etching, 153 x 136 mm. RPK, Amsterdam, RP-P-OB-12.472 [8].29
3b) Karel du Jardin, Horse harnessed as a Workhorse, etching, 81 x 103 mm. RPK, RM, Amsterdam, RP-P-1971-268 [9].30
4) Copy of DPG72: Ralph Cockburn, Landscape, with Cattle and Figures, c. 1816–20, aquatint, 405 x 352 mm (Cockburn 1830, no. 47). DPG [10].31
5) Copy of DPG72: Ralph Cockburn, Italianate landscape with peasants and a white horse, inscription: Published October 1, 1816 by R Cockburn, Dulwich, etching and aquatint with colouring on the flesh parts, 215 x 271 mm. BM, London, 1878,0511.1329 [11].32

The attribution was never in doubt. A date, read by Brochagen as ‘.676’, cannot now be seen.

The scene is an Italian mountainous landscape, with the sky lit by the last glow of sunset, and a group of cattle and people prominent in the foreground. Painted with greater chiaroscuro than Du Jardin’s earlier work, with a quite different tonal palette of sombre muted colours, and energetic, broadly painted figures, DPG72 is typical of his late œuvre, also in its inclusion of a horse in the centre of the composition.33 This white horse, used by Du Jardin in many paintings, recalls the almost compulsory white horse in the paintings of Philips Wouwerman (1619–68); the decrepit state of the old animal seems to be inspired by an etching by Paulus Potter (Related works, no. 2) [7]. Du Jardin also made etchings of a worn-out horse (cf. Related works, no. 3a) [8]. A workhorse in a small etching (Related works, no. 3b) [9] looks very much like the horse in DPG72.

DPG72
Karel du Jardin
Peasants and a White Horse, c. 1676
canvas, oil paint 44,1 x 39,7 cm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG72

6
Karel du Jardin
White horse in an Italian landscape, c. 1676
canvas, oil paint 53,5 x 44,3 cm
Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv./cat.nr. MI935

7
Paulus Potter
Worn-out horse, dated 1652
paper, etching 162 x 242 mm
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./cat.nr. RP-P-OB-4636


8
Karel du Jardin
Worn-out horse, dated 1652
paper, etching 153 x 136 mm
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./cat.nr. RP-P-OB-12.472

9
Karel du Jardin
Horse harnassed as a workhorse, 1652-1659
paper, etching 81 x 103 mm
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./cat.nr. RP-P-1971-268


10
Ralph Cockburn after Karel du Jardin
Landscape, with Cattle and Figures, 1816-1820
paper, aquatint 405 x 352 mm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery

11
Ralph Cockburn after Karel du Jardin
Italianate landscape with peasants and a white horse, dated 1816
paper, etching, aquatint 215 x 271 mm
bottom, in the middle : Published October 1, 1816 by R Cockburn, Dulwich
London (England), British Museum, inv./cat.nr. 1878,0511.1329


Follower of Karel du Jardin
DPG48 – A Woman with Cattle on a Road

c. 1650–1700; oak panel, 23.2 x 18.4 cm


PROVENANCE
Bourgeois Bequest, 1811; Britton 1813, p. 29, no. 295 (‘Unhung, no. 26 / Woman & Cattle in a Landscape. P[anel] [no attribution]’; 1'3" x 1'3").

REFERENCES
Cat. 1817, p. 5, no. 50 (‘FIRST ROOM – North Side; A Landscape, with a Girl and Cow; Karel du Jardin’); Haydon 1817, p. 374, no. 50 (Karel du Jardin); Cat. 1820, p. 5, no. 50 (Dujardin); Cat. 1830, p. 5, no. 47 (Dujardin); Jameson 1842, ii, p. 451, no. 47 (Karel Du Jardin?);34 Denning 1858 and 1859, no. 47 (ascribed to Dujardin); Sparkes 1876, p. 58, no. 47 (ascribed to Dujardin); Richter & Sparkes 1880, p. 60, no. 47 (School of Du Jardin);35 Richter & Sparkes 1892 and 1905, p. 12, no. 48; Cook 1914, pp. 27–8, no. 48; Cook 1926, p. 27, no. 48; Cat. 1953, p. 18 (Karel Dujardin); Murray 1980a, p. 299 (school of Dujardin); Beresford 1998, pp. 94–5 (follower of Dujardin); Kilian 2005, p. 240, no. C23 (rejected); Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, p. 77 (follower of Dujardin); RKD, no. 283082: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/283082 (March 6, 2017).

EXHIBITION
Hatchlands 1994, n.p., no. 48 (A. Sumner; Manner of Carel Dujardin).

TECHNICAL NOTES
Single-member oak panel, with a 2 cm batten let into the back of the right edge. The reverse has been painted (or primed) with black. The paint surface is generally very worn, with the goat and far cow appearing particularly thin. There are many retouchings, including the right edge of the sky, which has a 2.5 cm strip repainted all the way down. Previous recorded treatment: 1867, ‘revived’ and varnished; 1952–3, Dr Hell.

RELATED WORKS
1a) Karel du Jardin, Landscape with Peasants and Shepherdess (La fraîche matinée), signed and dated K. DU. JARDIN fc 165., canvas, 52 x 47 cm. Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney (on loan from the Minnamira Foundation), 1972.1 [12].36
1b) Jacques Philippe Le Bas after 1a, La fraîche matinée, 1781, etching and engraving, 312 x 263 mm. BM, London, 1917,1208.1361 [13].37
2) Karel du Jardin, Young Peasants crossing a Ford, c. 1657–60, signed K. DV. IARDIN. fe, canvas, 49.5 x 45.5 cm. Hermitage, St Petersburg, 792 [14].38
3a) Karel du Jardin, The Country Woman and the Sumpter crossing a Brook, signed K. DV. JARDIN fec., etching, 164 x 199 mm. BM, London, J,28.49 [15].39
3b) Karel du Jardin, The Standing Ox and the Calf lying down, 1658, etching, 201 x 167 mm. RPK, Amsterdam, RP-P-H-1331 [16].40

The authorship of this painting has been in doubt since 1843, and its condition makes a reliable attribution very difficult. Both composition and staffage feature in accepted paintings (Related works, nos 1a [12] and 2) [14], but the composition is rather weak. The woman stands isolated, in a strange pose, whereas in the related works the way she holds her head makes sense: she is engaged in conversation. Often this kind of picture was made after prints, but no direct relation to a print by or after Du Jardin (such as Related works, no. 1b) [13] has been found. However a similar woman appears in a print by Du Jardin, as does an ox (in reverse) in another print (Related works, nos 3a, b) [15-16].

DPG48
follower of Karel du Jardin
Woman with Cattle on a Road, 1650-1700
panel (oak), oil paint 23,2 x 18,4 cm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG48

12
Karel du Jardin
Landscape with peasants and shepherdess, 1650-1659
canvas, oil paint 52 x 47 cm
Sydney (Australia), Art Gallery of New South Wales, inv./cat.nr. 157.2020


13
Jacques-Philippe Le Bas after Karel du Jardin
Cool morning, 1781
paper, etching, engraving 312 x 263 mm
London (England), British Museum, inv./cat.nr. 1917,1208.1361, see also 1861,1109.121

14
Karel du Jardin
Young peasants crossing a ford, c. 1657-1660
canvas, oil paint 49,5 x 45,5 cm
Saint Petersburg (Russia), Hermitage, inv./cat.nr. 792


15
Karel du Jardin
Country woman and the sumpter crossing a brook, 1641-1678
paper, etching 164 x 199 mm
London (England), British Museum, inv./cat.nr. J,28.49

16
Karel du Jardin
Standing ox and a lying calf, dated 1658
paper, etching 201 x 167 mm
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./cat.nr. RP-P-H-1331


Notes

1 Kilian 2005, p. 75.

2 In Paris on 24 Dec. 1649 he married Susanna van Roy, widow of Martin Linssen: Mandrella 2012, p. 287, note 7; see also Kilian 2005, p. 7. Several publications say that he was in Paris in 1650, supposedly on the basis of the date on a drawing in Berlin, but that is not dated (Portrait of a Man, Kupferstichkabinett, no. 6697, is signed ‘K: Du: Jardin fe. Paris’; Bock & Rosenberg 1930, i, p. 164).

3 On the collection of the brothers Gerrit or Gerard (1599–1658) and Jan Reynst (1601–46) see Logan 1979. The best pieces from their collection ended up in the English Royal Collection (via the Dutch Gift of 1660). See Bikker 2009 for Du Jardin’s travels with the Reynst brothers.

4 RKD, no. 11438: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/11438 (March 6, 2017).

5 ‘A Peasant getting his Ox shoed at a Farrier’s Shop […] 1 ft. 3 in. by 1 ft. 5 in. – C[anvas]. Collection of M. Heemskirk, Hague, 1770. 305 flo. 27l. – M. P. Van Spyk, Leyden, 1781 […] 370 flo. 33l. – M. Geldermeester, 1800 814 flo. 73l. – Crawford, Esq., 1806 120 gs. A Picture corresponding with the preceding description is in the Dulwich Gallery.’ NB: the figure in DPG82 is not a peasant but a gentleman.

6 ‘read for size, 1 ft. 3½ by 1 ft. 4½. In the Museum at Edinburgh.’

7 Under no. 17 (Dujardin): ‘This charming painter is ill represented here: the best specimen of his style is No. 228 [= 229], but none are first-rate […] The best works of his I have seen in England are those in the Queen’s private gallery and Sir Robert Peel’s collection.’

8 Denning gives the provenance: ‘This Picture came through the hands of Mr. North, and was purchased by him for 120 guineas at the Sale of the Crawford Collection in 1806. Cf. Buchanan’s Memoirs. Vol: II. p: 181.’

9 ‘The costume of the figures is Italian. The execution of this picture shows great accuracy and care; the broad grey shadows, which extend over nearly the whole scene, are evenly finished, with great skill.’

10 ‘This is a charming example of the painter; executed with skilful accuracy and care, and very harmonious in general effect. The costume of the figures is Italian. …’

11 ‘A bambocciata subject, presumably painted in Italy. […] A version or copy formerly in the National Gallery, Edinburgh (HdG no 336), and now in Edinburgh University, has been confused with this picture.’

12 RKD, no. 283263: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/283263 (March 13, 2017); HdG, ix, 1926, pp. 386–7, no. 336, thought the picture in Edinburgh was the original version, and called DPG82 Ein zweites Exemplar (a second version). Now however the Edinburgh picture is not thought to be a 17th-century work: Kilian 2005, p. 156, no. 45/B, ‘It is a faithful, but coarse copy of the painting in Dulwich. The cow has lost some glaze and seems very flat as does the entire composition, which lacks definition. Not seventeenth century.’ P. Smyth in https://www.vads.ac.uk/digital/collection/NIRP/id/29202/rec/3 (Jan. 23, 2020), also considered it to be a copy after DPG82. Harwood 2002, p. 146, no. 33, refers to another Du Jardin painting in Edinburgh (EU 719; NGS 25).

13 Kilian 2005, p. 156, no. 45/C.

14 GPID (10 April 2015): Een Italiaansche Hoefsmit. Men ziet in het midden van dit Stuk een Os bij de Hoorens aan een Paal gebonden, wordende door de Smit aan de Achtervoet beslagen, bij dezelve staat een Heer, met een Mantel over de schouders, ter zijde een Jongen, schijnende tegen hem te spreken; fraai en malsch gepenseeld, hoog 15, breed 17 duim (An Italian farrier. You see in the middle of this picture an ox which is bound to a pole, his hind foot being shod by the farrier, near him stands a gentleman, with a cloak over his shoulders, next to a boy, seeming to speak to him, beautifully and tenderly painted, [Dutch dimensions]); Kilian 2005, p. 156, no. 45/A.

15 RKD, no. 283257: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/283257 (March 7, 2017); see also https://www.nga.gov/collection/art-object-page.1191.html (April 11, 2020); Walsh, Buijsen & Broos 1994, pp. 92–4, no. 13.

16 RKD, no. 283250: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/283250 (March 7, 2017); see also http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.191129 (April 11, 2020); Walsh, Buijsen & Broos 1994, p. 92 (fig. 1); Schuckman 1992a, p. 71, no. 56.

17 See note 12.

18 P. Smyth (see note 12) is incorrect in saying that the Edinburgh painting is the one acquired at the Crawford sale in 1806.

19 According to Beresford (1998, p. 94) this was an error.

20 Desenfans 1802, pp. 122–3, no. 133: ‘By the same [Karel Dujardin] A Landscape with Cattle and Figures. This is one of those beautiful landscapes with which Italy abounds; in the foreground of a valley, on the right, a man lies negligently reclining on the grass, near a flock of sheep that are grazing, and towards the left, another man is seated speaking to a woman, who is holding the bridle of an ass loaded with a pair of panniers; behind her, is a little girl and a boy, caressing a white horse, worn with age and labour and which is near the centre. A river winds more retired, and separates the valley from the back-ground, which is enlivened by a picturesque country-house, and many scattered figures; in the still more distant background, are others crossing a road, at the declivity of a hill which breaks with an enchanting effect, from the clear silvery and harmonious sky. On Canvas.’

21 ‘An old horse in the fore-ground is the subject of the picture, which, with the accessorial figures and background, makes it one of the best specimens of the master we have seen.’

22 ‘Collection of Noel Desenfans, Esq., 1801. This is perhaps the picture which was sold in the Braamcamp collection for 90l.’

23 ‘This picture must have been beautiful formerly; it has turned dark, and is in a bad condition.’

24 Denning 1858 cites Mrs Jameson on the bad condition of the painting. Denning 1859 notes: ‘There is still a great deal of beauty in this picture, but it is by no means in good preservation.’

25 ‘Painted under the influence of Caravaggio. The figures very naturalistic.’

26 RKD, no. 283267: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/283267 (March 13, 2017); Cd-rom of Faroult 2007, p. 286, M.I. 935 (B. Ducos and V. Verduron); Foucart & Foucart-Walter 2009, p. 125, no. M.I. 935; Kilian 2005, pp. 222 (no. 144), 394 (fig. 115).

27 Turner 2006, i, p. 60, no. 66; against Brochhagen 1957, p. 241, note 12 (wohl nur […] eine Kopie – probably only a copy).

28 RKD, no. 283343: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/283343 (March 14, 2017); or The Dying Horse, see also http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.39044 (April 11, 2020); Veldman & De Hoop Scheffer 1976, p. 218, no. 13, version II.

29 RKD, no. 283344: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/283344 (March 19, 2017); also called The Two Horses: see also http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.38281 (April 11, 2020); Hollstein 1952, p. 29, no. 4 (version II or III).

30 RKD, no. 283345: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/283345 (April 3, 2017); see also http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.38405 (April 11, 2020). Not in Hollstein or Bartsch.

31 RKD, no. 283690: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/283690 (April 10, 2017).

32 RKD, no. 299310: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/299310 (Jan. 30, 2021); see also https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1878-0511-1329 (Jan. 30, 2021); this is a different print: it is smaller, not in portrait format but in landscape format and also the colours are different than Related works, no. 4. This is the only case so far that another version of Cockburn's reproduction prints by DPG is known.

33 Cf. the examples reproduced in Brochhagen 1957.

34 ‘a small indifferent picture’.

35 ‘Painted by an unknown artist, under the influence of Du Jardin’.

36 RKD, no. 283364: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/283364 (March 19, 2017); Kilian 2005, pp. 153–4, no. 40, pl. 33.

37 RKD, no. 283362: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/283362 (March 19, 2017); see also https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1917-1208-1361 (July 6, 2020). According to Kilian 2005, p. 154, this print was first advertised in the Mercure de France in April 1777. Atwater 1989, ii, p. 678, gives the first announcement, in Mercure de France, in February 1774.

38 RKD, no. 38322: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/38322 (March 14, 2017); Kilian 2005, pp. 154–5, no. 42, fig. 35.

39 RKD, no. 283367: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/283367 (March 19, 2017); see also https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_J-28-49 (July 6, 2020); Hollstein 1952, p. 36, no. 27.

40 RKD, no. 283379: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/283379 (April 3, 2017); see also http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.38343 (April 11, 2015); Hollstein 1952, p. 37, no. 30 (version II, 4).

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