Dulwich Picture Gallery I

RKD STUDIES

Anthony van Dyck DPG173


DPG173 – Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, Prince of Oneglia and Viceroy of Sicily (1588–1624)

1624; canvas, 126 x 99.6 cm


PROVENANCE
Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, Palermo, 1624; ?several versions are mentioned;1 ?Vincent Donjeux sale, Lebrun, Paris, 29 April 1793 (Lugt 5049), lot 135, bt L. C. Desmarets for 2,505 livres [or bt in?];2 ?L. C. Desmarets sale, J.-B.-P. Le Brun, Paris, 21 July 1795 (Lugt 5350), lot 54, bt in, 10,001 assignats;3 Le Brun, Paris, 30 Jan. 1799 (Lugt 5855), lot 27, sold or bought in, 1,050 livres;4 Bourgeois Bequest, 1811; Britton 1813, p. 17, no. 161 (‘Upper-Room - East side of passage – cont.d / no. 24; Port.t Half length of Duke d’Alva. in Armour C[anvas] Vandyck’; 5'3" x 4'5").

REFERENCES
Bellori 1672/2005, p. 257;5 Cat. 1817, p. 12, no. 197 (‘CENTRE ROOM – North Side; Portrait of the Archduke Albert; Vandyke’); Haydon 1817, pp. 390–91, no. 197;6 Cat. 1820, p. 12, no. 197 (Van Dyck; Archduke Albert); Patmore 1824a, pp. 194, 201, no. 196;7 Patmore 1824b, p. 54, no. 196;8 Cat. 1830, p. 11, no. 218; Smith, iii, 1831, p. 197, no. 682, and p. 232, no. 831;9 Cat. 1831–3, p. 11, no. 218 (‘Very fine’); Jameson 1842, ii, pp. 478–9, no. 218;10 Bentley’s 1851, p. 348;11 Waagen 1854, ii, p. 342 (rather a work by Rubens);12 Denning 1858, no. 218 (it cannot be the Duke of Alva);13 not in Denning 1859; Walpole 1876, i, p. 318; Sparkes 1876, p. 153, no. 218 (School of Rubens); Richter & Sparkes 1880, pp. 53–4, no. 218 (Van Dijck; Portrait of a Knight);14 Baes 1878, p. 67; Guiffrey 1882, p. 284, no. 986; De Vesme 1885, pp. 25–6; Richter & Sparkes 1892, p. 46, no. 173; Cust 1900, p. 243, no. 116;15 Campbell 1903, p. 242;16 Richter & Sparkes 1905, p. 46, no. 173; Matranga 1908, p. 13, note 2; Schaeffer 1909, pp. 436 (fig.), 518 (only the head and the left hand are by Van Dyck); Phillips 1911 (by Rubens, 1607; portrait of a Genoese gentleman); Thompson, i, 1910, fig. 3 (Van Dyck, ‘perhaps Archduke Albert’); Van de Put 1912 (first identification as Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy); Van de Put 1914; Cook 1914, pp. 107–8, no. 173 (‘Portrait of a Knight’);17 Vaes 1924, p. 214; Cook 1926, pp. 101–2, no. 173 (‘Portrait of Emanuel Philibert’); Glück 1931, pp. 171 (fig.), 538; La Rocca 1940; Grossmann 1948, pp. 58–9 (fig. 42); Cat. 1953, p. 40, no. 173; Paintings 1954, pp. 26–7, [60]; Mann 1962, i, p. 85; Larsen 1975, p. 61, note 94; Murray 1980a, p. 55; Murray 1980b, p. 13; Larsen 1980a, i, pp. 116–17, no. 438 (fig. LIX); Larsen 1980b, pp. 41 (colour pl.), 120–21, no. 349; Brown 1982, pp. 78, 82–3 (pl. 71); Lipton 1985, p. 20;18 Barnes 1991/1986, i, pp. 14, 241–2, no. 36; Boccia & Godoy 1987, pp. 64–5 (fig.), 68 (note 18); Larsen 1988, i, pp. 230–32 (fig. 189), 396 (note 323), ii, p. 149, no. 368; Potter-Hennessey 1989, pp. 5, 24 (fig. 6); Abbate 1990, pp. 36–7 (fig. 19); Brown 1992a, pp. 146–7 (fig. 4); Jaffé 1994, p. 133; Di Macco 1995, pp. 351 (fig.), 354; Edwards 1996, pp. 173, 174 (fig.), 278–9, no. 135; Jaffé 1996, p. 478; Beresford 1998, pp. 98–9 (ill.); Abbate 1999, p. 111; Mendola 1999a, p. 97 (fig. 10); Mendola 1999b, p. 60; Aliverti 2000, pp. 103–4, 118 (note 27), 119 (note 31), 126 (fig. 4); Ricardi di Netro & Gentile 2000, p. 53, under no. 10 (Related works, no. 2a), pp. 54–5, under no. 11 (Related works, no. 4b), pp. 56–7, under no. 12 (Related works, no. 1f); Failla 2003, pp. 68–9, 86 (notes 225–30), fig. IV (colour); Barnes 2004, pp. 200–203, no. II.60; Abbate 2004, pp. 69–70; Wheelock 2005, p. 64 (fig. 2); Bellori 1672/2005, pp. 217, 221 (note 24);19 Barberis, Merlotti & Di Netro 2007, pp. 43–5 (reproduction reversed); Failla 2007, pp. 44–5, cat. 2.32; Slama & Prohaska 2008, pp. 145–6 (fig. 12); Gaddi 2010, pp. 206–7, under no. 53 (W.P.; Related works, no. 3e); Abbate 2011, pp. 83–6 (fig.), notes 69–71; Capwell 2011, p. 201 (fig. 122); Osborne 2011, pp. 57–8 (fig. 34); Salomon 2012, pp. 11–12, 19, 24, 58–61, no. 2, 62 (under no. 3), 68 (under no. 4), 78 (under no. 8); Jonker 2012; Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, pp. 84–6, 91; Piazza 2016, front cover; Montana 2016, pp. 187, 188 (fig. 1); Salomon 2016, pp. 13–15 (fig. 7); RKD, no. 48307: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/48307 (Oct. 8. 2018).

EXHIBITIONS
London 1828, p. 16, no. 113 (‘Portrait in Armour; Vandyke Dulwich College’); London/Leeds 1947–53, n.p., no. 12; London 1953–4, p. 51, no. 153; London/Washington/Los Angeles 1985–6, pp. 52–4, no. 6 (M. Rogers); Tokyo/Shizuoka/Osaka/Yokohama 1986–7, pp. 66–8, no. 7 (in Japanese; M. Rogers); London 1989;20 Washington 1990–91, pp. 180–81, no. 38 (S. J. Barnes); Münster/Osnabrück 1998–9, pp. 38–9, no. 37 (R. Oresko); Madrid/Bilbao 1999, pp. 112–13, no. 23 (I. A. C. Dejardin); Antwerp/London 1999, pp. 172–3, no. 35 (C. Brown; also in Illustrated Guide with 30 other chosen paintings]; Milan 2004, pp. 124–5 (ill.), 162, no. 10 (M. G. Bernardini); Turin 2007–8, pp. 44–5 (reproduction reversed), no. 2.32 (M. B. Failla); Washington 2009, pp. 270–73, no. 67 (X. F. Salomon); London 2012b, pp. 11–12, 19, 24, 58–61 (no. 2), 62, 68, 78 (X. F. Salomon).

TECHNICAL NOTES
Medium tabby-weave linen canvas. The canvas has been primed with animal glue. There is a mid-brown iron oxide and chalk in oil ground. This work is quite thickly painted with brushy impasto, and the paint appears uneven and granular, particularly in the background. Some passages were painted wet-in-wet. A few pentimenti are visible, including a change in position of the hinged piece of armour under Emmanuel’s proper right arm. BEVA-lined onto linen; the original tacking margins have been cut. There is some weave interference from the lining canvas. During the painting’s most recent treatment it was observed that there were many small original flakes of paint embedded in the lower varnish layer. The flakes have been removed but have left small indentations in the surface of the painting, adding to its textural discrepancies. Previous recorded treatment: 1945–7, cleaned, Dr Hell; 1976, test-cleaned, Bull and Reid; 1976, relined with BEVA, National Maritime Museum, J. Brealey; 1997 revarnished; 2001, Technical analysis, A. Burnstock; 2001–2, cleaned and restored, N. Ryder.

RELATED WORKS
1a) Oil sketch of the head, 63 x 52 cm. Present whereabouts unknown (Lamm collection, 1923).21
1b) Modello?, canvas, 104 x 74 cm. Present whereabouts unknown (Christie´s, 12 Feb. 1954, lot 50, attributed to Rubens).22
1c) Copy: present whereabouts unknown (Christie’s, 12 Feb. 1954, lot 50; R. W. Ca[r?]ter sale, Christie’s, 6 March 1936, lot 151).23
1d) Copy (bust only): Haynes Fine Art, Broadway, Worcs., 8–22 Dec. 2001 (follower of Franz Pourus [sic])
1e) Copy (half-length): canvas attached to board, 28 x 20.5". Private collection.24
1f) Copy (half-length): with a white Maltese cross, inscribed IL SER.MO PRENCIPE FILIBERTO DI SAVOIA, canvas, 55 x 46 cm. Private collection.25
1g) Copy (three-quarter length, as original): Gerald P. Stinski collection, Fairfax, Calif., slides received 24 July 1974

Other portraits of Emanuele Filiberto
2a) Jan Kraeck, known as Giovanni Caracca (active 1567–1607), Vittorio Amedeo (1587–1637) and Emanuele Filiberto, c. 1592–3, canvas, 114 x 84.7 cm. Christie’s, Amsterdam, 16 Dec. 2010, lot 240 [1].26
2b) Jan Kraeck, known as Giovanni Caracca, Vittorio Amedeo, Emanuele Filiberto and Filippo Emanuele (1586–1605) di Savoia as Young Children, c. 1593–4, canvas, 171 x 142.2 cm. Fundación Yannick y Ben Jakober, Mallorca, 662.27
2c) Jan Kraeck?, Vittorio Amedeo, Tommaso (1596–1656), Filippo Emanuele, Maurizio (1593–1657) and Emanuele Filiberto as Children, c. 1602–3. Private collection, Turin.28
2d) Spanish painter at the court of Philip III or IV, Full-length Portrait of Emanuele Filiberto alone in Armour with Maltese Cross, c. 1606, canvas, 204 x 110 cm. Castello di Racconigi, 5526.29
2e) Attributed to Tommaso Carlone, Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, marble, 96 x 66.5 x 37.5 cm. Galleria Sabauda, Turin, 20/720.30
2f) Portrait of Emanuele Filiberto, present wherebouts unknown (inventory of the Marqués de Leganés, Madrid, 1642).31
2g) Portrait of Emanuele Filiberto, present wherebouts unknown (inventory of the collection of his brother, Tommaso di Carignano, Turin, 1658).32
2h) Portrait of Emanuele Filiberto, present whereabouts unknown (purchased for His Majesty Prince Victor Amadeus I of Savoye-Carignano from Garibaldi from Genoa, Turin, 20 Dec. 1736).33

Other portraits
3a) Lucas Vorsterman I after Peter Paul Rubens after Titian, Charles V in Armour (Imp. Caes. Carolus V. Avg.), proof impression, inscriptions, engraving, 425 x 320 mm. BM, London, 1862,0712.50 [2].34
3b) Anthony van Dyck, The Lomellini Family, c. 1626, canvas, 265 x 248 cm. National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh, 120.35
3c) Anthony van Dyck, Filippo Spinola, canvas, 137 x 121.5 cm. Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati, O., 1927.393.36
3d) Anthony van Dyck, Count Hendrik van den Bergh, signed A VA. DYK F, c. 1627–9, canvas, 114 x 100 cm. Prado, Madrid, 1486.37
3e) Anthony van Dyck, Portrait of a Man in Armour (a Gonzaga?), c. 1622–4, canvas, 115.5 x 104.5 cm. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, 490.38
3f) Attributed to Anthony van Dyck, Giovanni Vincenzo Imperiale, 1626, canvas, 128.9 x 105.4 cm. NGA, Washington, Widener Collection, 1942.9.89.39
3g) Versions of Peter Paul Rubens, Marchese Ambrogio Spinola
3g.I) Panel, 117 x 85 cm. Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum, Brunswick, GG 85.40
3g.II) Panel, c. 1627, 116 x 84.5 cm. National Gallery, Prague, O 9688 [3].41
3g.III) Canvas, 118 x 85 cm. St Louis Art Museum, St Louis, Mo., 33.34 (formerly Duke of Leuchtenberg).42
3h) Michiel van Mierevelt, Ambrogio Spinola, signed and dated Pitore Michiel Mierevelde. 1609, canvas, 119 x 87.5 cm. RM, Amsterdam, SK-A-3953 [4].43

Armour with Savoy decoration
4a) Maestro del Castello, armour of Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, etched and gilt steel. Patrimonio Nacional, Real Armería, Madrid, A.360-368 [5].44
4b) Maestro del Castello, gorget, pauldrons, breastplate, arm harnesses. Private collection.45
4c) Orazio Calino of Brescia?, burgonet, gorget, pauldrons, breastplate, tassets, arm harnesses, gauntlets, early 17th century. Present whereabouts unknown (Christie’s, 20 June 1979, lot 9).
4d) Unknown maker, three-quarter armour (helmet, gorget, breastplate, backplate, tassets, culet, pauldrons, gauntlets), very low carbon steel, gold, gold braid, velvet and leather, gilt, blued, etched and incised, c. 1620–35. Wallace Collection, London, no. A63.46

Lace
5) Anthony van Dyck, Portrait of a Genoese Woman with her Son, 1623, canvas, 242.9 x 138.5 cm. NGA, Washington, Widener Collection, 1942.9.91.47

Lent to the RA to be copied in 1846, 1875, and 1876.

DPG173
Anthony van Dyck
Portrait of Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, prince of Oneglia, viceroy of Sicily (1588-1624), 1624 documented
canvas, oil paint 126 x 99,6 cm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG173

1
Jan Kraeck
Portrait of Vittorio Amedeo (1587-1637) and Emanuele Filiberto (1588-1624), Dukes of Savoy, full-length, in red and silver costumes with red hoses, lace collars and cuffs, c. 1592-1593
canvas, oil paint 114 x 84,7 cm
Christie's (Amsterdam) 2010-12-14 - 2010-12-16, nr. 240

2
Lucas Vorsterman (I) after Peter Paul Rubens after Tiziano published by Peter Paul Rubens
Portrait of the Emperor Charles V (1500-1558) in armour
paper, copper engraving 425 x 320 mm
The Hague, RKD – Nederlands Instituut voor Kunstgeschiedenis (Collectie Iconografisch Bureau)

3
Peter Paul Rubens
Portrait of Ambrogio Spinola (1569-1630), c. 1625
panel, oil paint 116,5 x 85 cm
Prague, Národní Galerie v Praze, inv./cat.nr. 9688

4
Michiel van Mierevelt
Portrait of Ambrogio de Spinola (1569-1630), 1609 (dated)
canvas, oil paint 119 x 87,5 cm
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./cat.nr. SK-A-3953

#

5
Maestro del Castello
Armour of Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, c. 1606
etched and gilt steel
Patrimonio Nacional, Real Armería, Madrid, A.360-368


In 1621 Van Dyck had left England for Italy, settling in Genoa. In January 1623 he visited Mantua and Milan on his way to Turin, home of the court of Savoy, in the entourage of his English patron, Lady Arundel, and in that year he also visited Rome, Florence and Bologna. Between the spring of 1624 and early September 1625 he was based in Palermo, where he began a number of important religious works.48 It is during this period that he painted Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy. It seems that Van Dyck went to Sicily on his own initiative; at least the sources do not mention any previous contact with Emanuele Filiberto. Bellori recorded the portrait, and it is also mentioned in the posthumous biography of the Prince written by his surgeon, Gianfrancesco Fiochetto.49 The latter says that the painting was created as a betrothal portrait in connection with Emanuele Filiberto’s match with Maria Gonzaga of Mantua (contract signed 16 May 1624)50 and that shortly after its completion the Prince returned to his quarters to find that it had fallen face downwards. Emanuele Filiberto took this as a sign of his forthcoming demise and in this he was correct, dying of the plague shortly afterwards.

Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy was born in Turin on 17 April 1588, the third son of Carlo Emanuele I of Savoy, Duke of Savoy, and the Infanta Catalina Michaela, daughter of Philip II of Spain.51 In Savoy Emanuele Filiberto was tutored by the philosopher Giovanni Botero; he then spent 1603–6 at the Spanish court with his two elder brothers. In 1600 he had entered the Order of St John, Knights of Malta: he is depicted thus by an anonymous Spanish court painter when he was about 18 (Related works, no. 2d), and he became the Order’s prior for Castille and Leon. Emanuele Filiberto’s life was spent in the service of his uncle, Philip III of Spain, and his cousin, Philip IV. He returned to Spain in 1610, and in 1615 was appointed Capitán General de la Mar – supreme commander of the Spanish navy. In 1620 he became Prince of Oneglia, and in 1621 he was appointed Viceroy of Sicily, then a Spanish possession. In May 1624 he resigned from the Order of St John as part of his betrothal to Maria Gonzaga, since the order required celibacy. Before the marriage, however, he died of the plague in Palermo on 3 August 1624. His importance to the Spanish Habsburgs is shown by his burial in the Escorial the following year. There are several portraits of Emanuele Filiberto by court painters, from the time when he was a toddler in court costumes (Related works, no. 2a–2c) [1]. The first depicting him in armour is a painting of c. 1606 (Related works, no. 2d). There is also a marble bust (Related works, no. 2e).

Painted in Palermo in 1624, is unclear when DPG173 left Italy. Had it been shipped to Mantua before the death of Emanuele Filiberto, or had it stayed in Sicily?52 Complicating matters is the fact that copies were made of portraits of noblemen to send to family members and as diplomatic gifts, and as a result they can be found all over Europe. DPG173 was definitely in Paris by 1793, and in the hands of Noel Desenfans’ business partner Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Le Brun between 1795 and 1799. It was presumably (but not certainly) exported to England by him, and it next appears in the 1813 inventory of Bourgeois’ collection, the sitter then identified as the Duke of Alba. Shortly afterwards Britton in his 1813 inventory re-identified the painting as Archduke Albert, and it was known as such throughout the 19th century until in 1912 Van de Put definitively demonstrated that the sitter was Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy.

In the portrait Emanuele Filiberto appears in three-quarter length, with one hand holding his baton of command, the other resting on his sheathed sword. Behind him to the right his helmet and gauntlets are resting on a table, and to the left is part of a pilaster. In addition to an elaborate ruff at his neck and lace at his wrists, he wears Italian armour created by the Master of the Castle (it survives in a near-complete state in the Real Armería, Madrid) richly decorated with the arms of Savoy and Savoyard ducal coronets (Related works, no. 4a) [5].53 According to Tobias Capwell this is standard war armour.54 It lacks the insignia of the Order of St John (that he wears in Related works, no. 1f), which he had renounced after his betrothal to Maria Gonzaga in 1624. In that context the ring worn on the little finger of his left hand – the object in the painting closest to the viewer – may also be significant. As Martin Warnke has suggested, the practice of an exchange of portraits developed from Classical, courtly, and Oriental literary sources that used the theme of the portrait to ‘set the heart on fire’.55 Another question arose regarding the lace neck ruff, which was banned in Spain in 1623 by sumptuary legislation. The explanation is probably that Emanuele Filiberto is seen in an Italian context, since nothing in the painting refers to the Spanish crown.56 Van Dyck became a specialist in depicting lace at this time, seen also in a portrait of a Genoese lady and her son of 1623 (Related works, no. 5).

In the portrait Emanuele Filiberto displays to the Gonzaga two important points about himself. His choice of Van Dyck’s sumptuous style would have been informed by the ideas found in his tutor Giovanni Botero’s Della Ragion di Stato (1598): dedicated to Emanuele Filiberto’s father, this widely read and influential contemporary update on Machiavelli’s principles of government argued that princely magnificence enhanced a ruler’s reputation with the public, which was in turn the key to maintaining power.57 This magnificent portrait presented Emanuele Filiberto to his prospective bride and her family as wealthy and therefore powerful. Secondly, as we shall see, the conventions used in the portrait emphasized his exalted lineage.

Van Dyck’s portrait of Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy is, with Velázquez’s Philip IV (DPG249), the second of two depictions of the grandchildren of Philip II of Spain in Dulwich. Both utilize conventions devised at the Habsburg courts in the 16th century for the presentation of royal majesty. Van Dyck’s portrait has a long lineage. Portraits in armour of both the dukes of Burgundy and the Habsburg emperors – from whom Emanuele Filiberto was descended – first appeared in the mid-15th century. The remarkable inheritance of Charles V – progressively Duke of Burgundy, King of Spain, and Holy Roman Emperor – led to Titian reinventing these conventions in the 1530s and 1540s.58 Titian’s portrait of Charles V is lost and is only known from the print by Vorsterman, which was made after the copy by Rubens (Related works, no. 3a) [2]. Van Dyck’s changes, compared to Titian’s composition, concern the helmet and the lace ruff. Titian placed the helmet in the background at the same height as the head of the sitter. Van Dyck also places the helmet on a table in the background, but lower down and with lavish feathers that give the scene a festive character. The same type of helmet with feathers on a table features in Mierevelt’s portrait of Ambrogio Spinola of 1609 (Related works, no. 3h) [4] and in other Titian portraits. Mierevelt’s sitter also wears a lace ruff. Van Dyck might have seen this portrait, which was painted in The Hague, or the print after it by Jan Harmensz. Muller. In Rubens’s portrait of Spinola some twenty years later we see the same feathers and ruff but different armour (Related works, no. 3g.I–III) [3]. The other men depicted by Van Dyck in armour (Related works, nos 3b–3e) seem much more martial than DPG173, perhaps because they have much less showy collars of linen or lace. In general DPG173 is painted much more precisely and smoothly than Van Dyck’s other portraits of the period. His virtuosity went into depicting the decorated metal, lace and skin, almost like a Leiden fijnschilder (fine painter). There is not such precision in Van Dyck’s other formal portraits of this period and later.59

DPG173 was lent to the Royal Academy three times to be copied by pupils. The American portrait painter Chester Harding was very much impressed by it in the early 19th century.60

DPG173
Anthony van Dyck
Portrait of Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, prince of Oneglia, viceroy of Sicily (1588-1624), 1624 documented
canvas, oil paint 126 x 99,6 cm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG173

1
Jan Kraeck
Portrait of Vittorio Amedeo (1587-1637) and Emanuele Filiberto (1588-1624), Dukes of Savoy, full-length, in red and silver costumes with red hoses, lace collars and cuffs, c. 1592-1593
canvas, oil paint 114 x 84,7 cm
Christie's (Amsterdam) 2010-12-14 - 2010-12-16, nr. 240

#

5
Maestro del Castello
Armour of Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, c. 1606
etched and gilt steel
Patrimonio Nacional, Real Armería, Madrid, A.360-368

2
Lucas Vorsterman (I) after Peter Paul Rubens after Tiziano published by Peter Paul Rubens
Portrait of the Emperor Charles V (1500-1558) in armour
paper, copper engraving 425 x 320 mm
The Hague, RKD – Nederlands Instituut voor Kunstgeschiedenis (Collectie Iconografisch Bureau)


3
Peter Paul Rubens
Portrait of Ambrogio Spinola (1569-1630), c. 1625
panel, oil paint 116,5 x 85 cm
Prague, Národní Galerie v Praze, inv./cat.nr. 9688

4
Michiel van Mierevelt
Portrait of Ambrogio de Spinola (1569-1630), 1609 (dated)
canvas, oil paint 119 x 87,5 cm
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./cat.nr. SK-A-3953


Notes

1 See Related works, nos 2f–2h.

2 GPID (26 May 2015). NB: according to Barnes (1990, p. 180) the auction was held on 29 May 1793 and the lot no. was 132: Par le même [= Antoine Vandick] – Le portrait d’un homme, de grandeur naturelle et vu jusqu'aux genoux; il a le regard tourné vers le spectateur, porte peu de cheveux et une moustache; son col est garni d'une fraise; il est vêtu d'une cuirasse enrichie d'ornemens en or. Il tient de la main droite un bâton, et appuie sa main gauche sur le pommeau de son épée; on voit encore une table couverte d'un tapis rouge, sur laquelle est posé son casque. Ce tableau, de la maniére coloriée et brillante de ce maître, peut être regardé comme une de ses plus belles productions H. 46 p. larg. 36. T[oile]. (By the same [= Anthony van Dyck] – the portrait of a man, life-size and seen down to the knees; he looks at the viewer, has not much hair, and a moustache; his collar is decorated with a ruff; he is dressed in armour enriched with gold ornaments. In his right hand he holds a stick, and he rests his left hand on the hilt of his sword; also visible is a table covered with a red carpet, on which his helmet is placed. This painting, in the colourful and brilliant manner of this master, may be regarded as one of his finest productions, [canvas; French dimensions]; sold to L. C. Desmarets for 2,501 livres [or bt in?]. See also Edwards 1996, pp. 278–9, no. 135. Salomon 2012, p. 58, says in the text of the entry on DPG173 that on 27 Feb. 1795 the picture was in a sale in London (Desenfans sale, Skinner & Dyke, 27 Feb. 1795, no. 35, ‘The Portrait of General Schombergh’). This was not DPG173: DPG173 was most probably the picture with the same description in the three Le Brun sales in Paris in 1793, 1795 and 1799 (Lugt 5049, Lugt 5350 and Lugt 5855). The portrait of Schombergh is another picture: it is not likely that a work in the hands of Le Brun in Paris between 1793 and 1799 had gone to London in 1795 (in the possession of Desenfans), returned to Lebrun in Paris in 1799, and returned to Desenfans in London again in or after 1799: DPG173 entered Desenfans’ collection not in 1795 but no earlier than 1799.

3 Same description as in the preceding note.

4 Same description as in note 222, plus il vient du cabinet Donjeux, no. 135 de notre catalogue, vendu, en avril 1793, 2505 livres. Moyen tableau sur T[oile] (it comes from the Donjeux collection, no. 135 in our catalogue, sold in April 1793, 2,505 livres. Medium size picture on canvas).

5 See note 19 for the English translation and note 49 for the Italian original.

6 ‘Sir Anth. van Dyck. Portrait of Archduke Albert. In a richly chased and embossed suit of armour. The painting is firm without being hard; yet though it has not the facility of his later pictures, it has all the care and correctness on which that after facility was founded, and is a perfect model for portrait painters. The handling in some parts, appears, on a close examination repeated to a degree of care, that makes it lose that sparkling freshness, which is the result of facility; but it is the care of an intense feeling, for the identity of nature, that exhausts invention, in new modes of imitating her, and wearies the hand in trying each mode, as each successively succeeds the other.’

7 p. 194, no. 196: ‘Here are also two other admirable works by the same master – portraits of the Earl of Pembroke (163 [DPG170]) and the Archduke Albert (196); both displaying that look of conventional nobility which no one could give like Vandyck. […]; p. 201: ‘In Nos 194 [now De Vos; DPG290], 195 [now After Velázquez; DPG152], and 196, we have three admirable portraits together; […] and the third, by Vandyck, in his finest manner, of the Archduke Albert.’

8 ‘This admirable portrait, of the Archduke Albert, is in Vandyke’s finest manner. It is full of dignity and self-possession, not unmixed with an air of secret self-importance; but there is no tinge whatever of pretence or affectation.’

9 p. 197, no. 682: ‘a Gentleman, clad in a suit of rich armour […] Exhibited in the British Gallery in 1828. Now in the Dulwich Gallery’, and p. 232, no. 831: ‘a Gentleman […] This is a carefully-finished and richly-coloured picture [sic] and is evidently one of the artist’s Italian productions. […] Now in the Dulwich Gallery.’

10 ‘Portrait of a Man of rank. […] Called here the portrait of the Archduke Albert, who was Governor of the Netherlands under Philip IV; but it is very different from the known portraits of him, in which he is represented with close light hair and a fair sanguine complexion. This represents a dark man in the prime of life.’

11 ‘Far finer [than Van Dyck, Earl of Pembroke, now George Digby, 2d Earl of Bristol, DPG170, see Ingamells 2008, pp. 106–7] is the neighbouring likeness of the Archduke Albert, by the same master. This is a noble portrait, pure and simple in colour, dignified and natural in expression, and singularly forcible and life-like in effect.’

12 ‘This picture, which is painted with much skill and care, in a clear golden tone, appears to me, from the conception and handling, to be rather a work of Rubens. […] (No. 218.).’

13 (inserted) ‘This is a carefully finished and richly-coloured picture, and is evidently one of the artist’s Italian productions’. ‘Smith] […] School of Rubens/ rather Rubens […] Portrait of the Archduke Albert (?) [Vandyke?] It might be by Gaspar de Crayer. […] Smith [crossed out: ‘688’] 831. […] Waagen’. It is more probably the work of Rubens from a consideration of the facts [inserted: The Duke was a Patron of Rubens.] […] Vandyke was not born till 1599. He died 1641. When the archduke was of the age indicated by the portrait, Vandyke was about one yr old. [Denning continues on the left p.] Exhibited in the British Gallery in 1828. […] Mrs Jameson […].’

14 ‘Van Dijck has painted here almost only the head and the left hand’.

15 235 ‘Savoie, Philibert Emmanuel, Duc de. Viceroy of Sicily. Painted in 1625 (Cat. M. Menotti, 74).’

16 ‘Van Dyck’s beautiful Portrait of a Knight (by some attributed to Rubens) next attracts our eyes’.

17 ‘The picture has at different times been ascribed to Rubens and Van Dyck. It is almost certainly by the latter painter. The identification of the “knight”, with the refined face and splendid suit of armour, has also been much debated. […] Van der Put […] establishes pretty conclusively that the portrait is of Emanuel Philibert. […] (For the case for attributing the portrait to Rubens see an article by Sir Claude Phillips in The Art Journal, 1911, where the suit of armour in the Wallace collection (no. 1122) is reproduced beside our portrait. Sir Claude suggests that the picture was painted by Rubens in about the year 1607).’

18 ‘[Chester Harding] greatly admired the “transparent shadows”’ of DPG173 and ‘called it the finest piece of art he had ever seen’. The American artist lived in London 1823–6.

19 ‘Anthony conceived a desire to move to Sicily where, as Prince Emanuel Philibert of Savoy was viceroy at the time, he painted his portrait. But during this period the plague occurred, and the prince’s death; and when Cardinal Doria succeeded him, as Anthony had suffered something of a disaster in Palermo, he departed from there in the greatest haste, as if in flight, and returned to Genoa.’ For the original Italian see note 49.

20 14 pictures were lent from DPG to the NG Board Room 7 July–3 Sept. 1989. There was no catalogue.

21 Barnes 1991/1986, p. 358, no. C7. Salomon 2012, p. 58, under no. 2. Postcard from Birger Svenonius (Resarö, Sweden) to Dulwich Gallery, undated (DPG173 file): ‘The sketch to Your v. Dyck-portr. of Emanuel Philibert of Savoy […] (no. 173) is in the possession of mrs. Emmy Josephson […] Stockholm, Sweden’; possibly the same sketch mentioned as being in the H. S. Josephson collection, Stockholm: see Glück 1931, p. 538 (under p. 171).

22 Barnes 1991/1986, i, p. 359, no. C8; Wheelock, Barnes & Held 1990, p. 180, note 4 (S. J. Barnes), no location given.

23 Barnes 1991/1986, i, note 5. This information comes from Ludwig Burchard in the Rubenianum, Antwerp. See also Salomon 2012, p. 58. However according to Vey (2004, p. 203) these are two different pictures.

24 Email from Susan Chambers to Lucy Findley, 14 March 2012 (DPG173 file).

25 Ricardi di Netro & Gentile 2000, pp. 56–7, no. 12 (P. Bianchi).

26 RKD, no. 227924: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/227924 (Nov. 14, 2018).

27 http://www.fundacionjakober.org/index.php/en/collections/nins-portrait-of-childrens.html (July 24, 2013). The information on the collection seems not to be present on the website now: http://www.alcudiamallorca.com/en/que-ver/cultura/arte-y-museos/fundacion-yannick-y-ben-jakober-museu-sa-bassa-blanca/ (Dec. 11, 2018).

28 Boccia & Godoy 1987, p. 57 (fig.).

29 Ricardi di Netro & Gentile 2000, p. 53, no. 10 (C. E. Bertana), where the portrait is dated 1618, because the inscriptions says that he is a prince, which he became in 1618 [sic: it was in 1620]; however he is depicted as a young adolescent, not as a man of thirty. Moreover he was at the Spanish court 1603–6, so it is likely that the painting was made in that period if it is by a Spanish painter. The inscription was probably later added, in or after 1620.

30 Salomon 2012, pp. 68–9, no. 4.

31 Letter from Mary Crawford Volk to Giles Waterfield, 18 June 1985 (DPG173 file); she mentions a portrait of Emanuele Filiberto in the Leganés inventory, which could be DPG173 or a copy. However in the documents about Van Dyck pictures in this collection that she published in 1980 no portrait of Emanuele Filiberto is mentioned: Volk 1980b, p. 268.

32 Salomon 2012, p. 58, based on Failla 2003, p. 69. This could be the same portrait as in the sale catalogue of the Prince of Carignan in Paris (GPID, 28 May 2015), 30 July 1742 (Lugt 559), p. 16 (there are no lot nos: nos 118a, b): goût de Vandik, Deux Tableaux sur toile ceintrés par en haut, de cinquante-quatre pouces de haut, sur quarante-deux de large, représentant deux portraits d'homme demi corps; l'un peint par Bourdon, & l'autre dans le goût de Vandik (in the style of Van Dyck, two pictures on canvas, curved at the top, 54 x 42 [French] in. [146.2 x 113.7 cm], two half-length portraits of men; one painted by Bourdon and the other in the style of Van Dyck); sold or bought in. See Salomon 2012, p. 58. However DPG173 is not half-length but three-quarter-length, and does not have a curved top.

33 Salomon 2012, p. 58: A Gio. Batta. Cerruti in rimborso per aver pagato al sig. Garibaldi un quadro rappresentante l’effigie al natural del fu serenissimo principe Filiberto di Savoia in suo vivente vice re di Sicilia acquistato da S.M. trasmesso a Torino, rec. 13 dicembre 1736, £ 200. 20 dicembre 1736 (To Giovanni Battista Cerruti to reimburse him for having paid Mr. Garibaldi for a lifelike depiction of the late Prince Filiberto of Savoy who was Viceroy of Sicily during his life, acquired by His Majesty and sent to Turin, received 13 Dec. 1736, paid £200 on 20 Dec. 1736), based on Failla 2003, p. 86, note 234.

34 https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1862-0712-50 (July 31, 2020); curator’s comments: ‘After a copy by Rubens (Rooses 915) of the painting by Titian (lost since 1666), now in a British private collection (Wethey, ii, 1971, L-3 and copy 1, pl. 48). For impressions of a lettered state see 1891,0414.957 and X,1.6.’ For a proof impression see 1862,0712.50. For the Rubens picture see also under DPG73, Related works, no. 3c.I, and for another version RKD, no. 122911: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/122911 (Dec. 11, 2018).

35 RKD, no. 120651: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/120651 (Dec. 11, 2018); Barnes 2004, pp. 192–3, no. II.49.

36 RKD, no. 59128: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/59128 (Nov. 14, 2018); Barnes 2004, p. 206, no. II.64.

37 RKD, no. 59125: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/59125 (Nov. 14, 2018); Vey 2004, pp. 302–3, no. III.69; Díaz Padrón 1996, i, pp. 454–5, no. 1486.

38 RKD, no. 116096: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/116096 (Nov. 14, 2018). See also www.khm.at/de/object/4ffce04d92/ (Nov. 14, 2018); Gaddi 2010, pp. 206–7, no. 53 (W.P.); Barnes 2004, p. 219, no. II.85; Ferino-Pagden, Prohaska & Schütz 1991, p. 53, pl. 415.

39 259 RKD, no. 57092: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/57092 (Dec. 11, 2018); Wheelock 2005, pp. 61–5, no. 1942.9.89 (‘It is remarkably similar to the head [of DPG173]. The resemblances are evident not only in the shape of the head, but also in the direction of the sitter’s gaze and the characterization of his features’; not in Barnes 2004; Potter-Hennessey 1989, p. 5 (comparison with DPG173: ‘it seems unlikely that they were not painted by the same hand’; when the images of the heads are superimposed ‘the eyes, nose, mouth, and moustaches match perfectly’).

40 RKD, no. 60089: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/60089 (Nov. 5, 2018); Büttner & Heinen 2004, pp. 165–7, no. 19 (N. Büttner); Klessmann 2003, pp. 86–7, no. 85; Jaffé 1989, p. 301, no. 887.

41 RKD, no. 260751: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/260751 (Dec. 13, 2018); Slavicĕk 2000, pp. 18, 234, no. 253.

42 ibid., under no. 253.

43 RKD, no. 228396: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/228396 (Nov. 5, 2018). See also http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.10060 (July 31, 2020); email Leonard Faith to Philippa Hemsley, 28 March 2012 (DPG173 file), in which Debbie Babbage is cited who mentions this picture as a possible model for DPG173. This could have happened if it had been transported to Antwerp, where Van Dyck could have seen it, or via the print by Jan Harmensz. Muller dated 1615 (RKD, no. 240848), which has the same orientation as the picture. In general reversing a composition was no problem for Van Dyck. Spinola was in The Hague during the negotiations for the truce between the Republic and Spain that began in 1609 (and were to last until 1621). The English ambassador Ralph Winwood also had his portrait painted by Mierevelt (1608): Jansen 2011, pp. 70, 71 (fig.), 75.

44 Salomon 2012, pp. 62–7, no. 3; Favaro 2007, p. 43, no. 2.30 (F. Cervini); A.360, A362 and A364 in Soler del Campo 2009, pp. 270, 272, no. 66; Boccia & Godoy 1987. According to Fulvio Cervini (Favaro 2007, p. 43, no. 2.30), however, this set of armour in the Real Armería was made not for Emanuele Filiberto but for his brother, Filippo Emanuele of Savoy. The set for Emanuele Filiberto is in the same collection (nos A. 369–76).

45 Ricardi di Netro & Gentile 2000, pp. 54–5, no. 11.

46 https://wallacelive.wallacecollection.org/eMP/eMuseumPlus?service=direct/1/ResultListView/result.t1.collection_list.$TspTitleImageLink.link&sp=10&sp=Scollection&sp=SfieldValue&sp=0&sp=0&sp=2&sp=SdetailList&sp=0&sp=Sdetail&sp=0&sp=F&sp=T&sp=1(Jan. 15, 2021); made for Emanuele Filiberto or Maurizio Filiberto of Savoy; according to Capwell (2011, pp. 200–201) it was made ‘probably for a high ranking member of the House of Savoy’, with DPG173 illustrated on the same page; Mann 1962, i, pp. 83–6, with a discussion about the possible maker (from Brescia or Milan).

47 See https://www.nga.gov/collection/art-object-page.1230.html#overview (Dec. 13, 2018); Wheelock 2005, pp. 66–70; Barnes 2004, p. 212, no. II.74; Bernardini 2004, pp. 134–5, 164–5, no. 18.

48 See Salomon 2012 for what Van Dyck produced in Sicily.

49 Bellori 1672/2005, p. 257: venne desiderio ad Antonio di trasferirsi in Sicilia, dove trovandosi il Principe Filiberto di Savoja, allora Vicerè, fece il suo ritratto. Ma accade in questo tempo il contagio, e la morte del Principe: a cui essendo succeduto il Cardinale Doria, avendo Antonio patito qualche disastro in Palermo, se ne parti il più tosto come in fuga, ed a Genova fece ritorno (for translation see note 19 above). According to Abbate (2011, p. 69) an invitation from the Prince was not really necessary, as there were enough reasons for Van Dyck to go to Sicily: for instance he knew many Flemish people who lived there, who he would visit. Salomon (2012, p. 19) however states: ‘The main reason for Van Dyck’s trip to Palermo seems to have been the prestigious commission for a portrait of the Viceroy of Sicily, Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy’, but there is no archival evidence for that.

50 However Salomon says it is ‘simply an official image of the viceroy’: Salomon 2012, p. 58.

51 Van Dyck must also have painted a portrait of Carlo Emanuele I, which however is lost: Bava 1995, p. 252, note 185; see also De Vesme 1885, pp. 8–9.

52 Failla (2003, p. 69) suggests that the painting may have gone to France via Piedmont. See Related works, nos 2g–h.

53 See note 44 for Fulvio Cervini (Favaro 2007, p. 43, no. 2.30), who says that this set of armour was not made for Emanuele Filiberto but for his brother, Filippo Emanuele of Savoy. The set for Emanuele Filiberto is in the same collection (nos A. 369–76). According to Michiel Jonker (email to Peter Finer, 28 March 2012; DPG173 file) the decoration comprises more than just the Savoy emblems: there are bundles with arms and bundles with musical instruments. Could they have a special meaning?

54 Email from Tobias Capwell to Eva Cappon, 7 Jan. 2019 (DPG173 file). See also Jonker 2012.

55 Warnke 1993, p. 219. While the portrait was clearly an aid in the process, it may also have served as part of the arrha sponsalicia, the gift of valuables between the parties that ensured betrothals would be followed through: see Hall 1994, pp. 49–94, esp. pp. 61–62. For betrothal portraiture see Fichtner 1976.

56 Email from Leonard Faith to Philippa Hemsley, 28 March 2012 (DPG173 file). Faith cites Debbie Babbage of the Courtauld Institute, who mentions a portrait of Ambrosio Spinola by Michiel van Mierevelt with a comparable lace ruff (Related works, no. 3h) [4].

57 See Botero 1598/1990 and Baldini 2004.

58 On the state portrait in general see Bachstitz 1934 and Jenkins 1947. For the early development of Habsburg portraiture see Matthews 2002.

59 Jonker 2012, p. 57.

60 See note 18.

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